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in Roman religion: see Bona DeaBona Dea
, in Roman religion, ancient fertility goddess worshiped only by women; also called Fauna. She was said to be the daughter, sister, or wife of Faunus. No man could be present at her annual festival in May.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the aggregate of animal species inhabiting a particular region. The fauna of a region evolves historically from various animal groups known as faunistic complexes. It is usually difficult and sometimes even impossible to ascertain the origin of a faunistic complex; as a result, determination of whether certain species belong to a given complex is generally based on the similarity of the ranges of the animals.

There are tundra, taiga, nemoral, forest, steppe, semidesert, desert, pantropic, palaeotropical, and other faunistic complexes. The faunistic complexes constituting a given fauna may vary in number. For example, the steppe fauna is made up of the predominant steppe faunistic complex, a complex of cosmopolitan species, and representatives of complexes predominant in other faunas, for example, nemoral and desert complexes. The steppe faunistic complex, in turn, consists of several groups: endemic animals, animals that are not endemic but occupy zonal habitats in the steppe zone and do not range far from the zone, and animals that range relatively far from the zone but are very abundant in the zone. Every region has autochthonous species, whose origin is linked to the region, and immigrant species. Thus, the fauna of a region consists of species of different origin that came to the region by different routes and at different times. The species constituting a fauna occupy a given habitat. For example, the desert fauna includes inhabitants of clayey deserts, sandy deserts, stony deserts, solonetzes, solonchaks, lakes, rivers, and river valleys overgrown with tugais.

One of the principal means of studying a fauna is to take an inventory to determine the number of species constituting the fauna. The end result of fauna research is faunistic or zoogeographic regionalization of the earth or its individual regions.

The term “fauna” should not be confused with animal population—that is, the aggregate of animals that form a community characterized both by species diversity and by a large number of individuals (for example, in a tropical rain forest, high-grass savanna, or spruce forest). The term “fauna” is also applied to animals of different taxonomic categories (for example, the bird fauna or beetle fauna of a particular region), to the animals of a particular period (recent fauna, Myocene fauna), and, in geology, to the remains of animals from certain strata of earth.

Faunas are also studied by a branch of zoogeography called faunisties or faunistic zoogeography. Comprehensive treatises on the animals of an area are also called faunas, for example, the USSR fauna and the Tadzhikistan fauna.


Geptner, V. G. Obshchaia zoogeografiia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.
Bobrinskii, N. A., and N. A. Gladkov. Geografiia zhivotnykh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1961.
Kucheruk, V. V. “Stepnoi faunisticheskii kompleks mlekopitaiu-shchikh i ego mesto v faune Palearktiki.” In Geografiia naseleniia nazemnykh zhivotnykh i metody ego izucheniia. Moscow, 1959.
Voronov, A. G. Biogeografiia. Moscow, 1963.
Darlington, F. Zoogeografiia. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Lattin, G. de. Grundriss der Zoogeographie. Jena, 1967.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The animal life characteristic of a particular region or environment.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. all the animal life of a given place or time, esp when distinguished from the plant life (flora)
2. a descriptive list of such animals
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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However, recent faunal studies, especially on conodonts, suggest the extinction event transcends the formational boundaries, and place the Permian-Triassic boundary within the basal or middle part of the Kathwai Member of the Mianwali Formation (see Pakistani-Japanese Research Group,1985; Wardlawand Mei, 1999).
Although the marine faunal assemblages from GUS, Nipaatsoq, and Sandnes indicate a shift toward more marine resources over time, this shift is neither dramatic enough nor large enough to account for these high stable carbon isotopic values.
However, this quibble aside, Tchernov's prompt, affordable, and detailed presentation of the rich faunal material from Netiv Hagdud has placed all Middle Eastern prehistorians in his debt.
It was in the context of this research that we carried out the analyses of the faunal assemblages from Puntutjarpa, Intitjikula and Serpent's Glen.
As ecosystems shifted, a key predator disappeared, heralding Cenozoic faunal transitions that eventually led to the evolution of the modern African fauna."
The depositional texture and faunal association indicates that the microfacies represent deposition in a low energy that is inner to middle shelf settings.
As a self-taught artist who takes inspiration from Marianne North (1830-90), a pioneering 19th-century English botanical artist who travelled the world, I credit floral and faunal wildlife as my true educators.
Archiebald Malaki, conducted floral, faunal and malacofaunal diversity assessment in four KBAs in three selected mountains of Cebu: Mount Lantoy in Argao, Mount Lanaya in Malabuyoc and Mount Kapayas in Catmon.
The topics include initial construction and occupation starting about 945-1020, modifications of House 500 when it was rebuilt about 1070-1125, the reuse and abandonment of the ruins of House 007 ending about 1160-1245, the faunal remains: mammals, absorbed and visible organic residues, and the Cille Pheadair farmstead in the context of politics and power in the Western Isles.
Moi is the proof that our biodiversity is still rich in faunal population," Sampluna pointed out.
Nevertheless, different land-use types and agricultural management practices exert a differential impact on soil faunal diversity, particularly on the communities of soil-dwelling macroinvertebrates.
The comparative faunal enamel baseline established for the Fortress of Louisbourg has an average [.sup.87]Sr/[.sup.86]Sr value of 0.710666 [+ or -] 0.001483 (N = 35) and a range of 0.005992 (Ellerbrok 2014:82), and the comparative human enamel values from the Sainte Marie mass burial have an average [.sup.87]Sr/[.sup.86]Sr value of 0.710784 [+ or -] 0.001282 (N = 33) with a range of 0.005157 (Ellerbrok 2014:84).