Fauna

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Fauna,

in Roman religion: see Bona DeaBona Dea
, in Roman religion, ancient fertility goddess worshiped only by women; also called Fauna. She was said to be the daughter, sister, or wife of Faunus. No man could be present at her annual festival in May.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Fauna

 

the aggregate of animal species inhabiting a particular region. The fauna of a region evolves historically from various animal groups known as faunistic complexes. It is usually difficult and sometimes even impossible to ascertain the origin of a faunistic complex; as a result, determination of whether certain species belong to a given complex is generally based on the similarity of the ranges of the animals.

There are tundra, taiga, nemoral, forest, steppe, semidesert, desert, pantropic, palaeotropical, and other faunistic complexes. The faunistic complexes constituting a given fauna may vary in number. For example, the steppe fauna is made up of the predominant steppe faunistic complex, a complex of cosmopolitan species, and representatives of complexes predominant in other faunas, for example, nemoral and desert complexes. The steppe faunistic complex, in turn, consists of several groups: endemic animals, animals that are not endemic but occupy zonal habitats in the steppe zone and do not range far from the zone, and animals that range relatively far from the zone but are very abundant in the zone. Every region has autochthonous species, whose origin is linked to the region, and immigrant species. Thus, the fauna of a region consists of species of different origin that came to the region by different routes and at different times. The species constituting a fauna occupy a given habitat. For example, the desert fauna includes inhabitants of clayey deserts, sandy deserts, stony deserts, solonetzes, solonchaks, lakes, rivers, and river valleys overgrown with tugais.

One of the principal means of studying a fauna is to take an inventory to determine the number of species constituting the fauna. The end result of fauna research is faunistic or zoogeographic regionalization of the earth or its individual regions.

The term “fauna” should not be confused with animal population—that is, the aggregate of animals that form a community characterized both by species diversity and by a large number of individuals (for example, in a tropical rain forest, high-grass savanna, or spruce forest). The term “fauna” is also applied to animals of different taxonomic categories (for example, the bird fauna or beetle fauna of a particular region), to the animals of a particular period (recent fauna, Myocene fauna), and, in geology, to the remains of animals from certain strata of earth.

Faunas are also studied by a branch of zoogeography called faunisties or faunistic zoogeography. Comprehensive treatises on the animals of an area are also called faunas, for example, the USSR fauna and the Tadzhikistan fauna.

REFERENCES

Geptner, V. G. Obshchaia zoogeografiia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.
Bobrinskii, N. A., and N. A. Gladkov. Geografiia zhivotnykh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1961.
Kucheruk, V. V. “Stepnoi faunisticheskii kompleks mlekopitaiu-shchikh i ego mesto v faune Palearktiki.” In Geografiia naseleniia nazemnykh zhivotnykh i metody ego izucheniia. Moscow, 1959.
Voronov, A. G. Biogeografiia. Moscow, 1963.
Darlington, F. Zoogeografiia. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Lattin, G. de. Grundriss der Zoogeographie. Jena, 1967.

A. G. VORONOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

fauna

[′fȯn·ə]
(zoology)
Animals.
The animal life characteristic of a particular region or environment.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

fauna

1. all the animal life of a given place or time, esp when distinguished from the plant life (flora)
2. a descriptive list of such animals
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Arachnological faunistic works have traditionally given scant attention to biogeographic origin, a situation which will hopefully change as arachnologists come to appreciate the critical importance of the native/non-native distinction in conservation contexts, as well as in understanding the ecology and evolution of these animals.
Number of individuals captured, faunistic indices (dominance, abundance, frequency, constancy) and functional groups of arthropods captured using pitfall traps in conventional and organic sugarcane systems in Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 growing seasons.
hamatus: Brunner von Wattenwyl 1878: 41 description; Brunner von Wattenwyl 1891: 25 key; Werner 1901: 286 quotation; Jacobson 1905: 330, 356: key, description; Kirby 1906: 376 taxonomic list; Giglio-Tos 1914: 3 faunistics; Werner 1933:190 faunistics; Ramme 1933: 507, 509 (arrangement), 510 (checklist), 538 (description); Werner 1936:11 faunistics; Jannone 1936: 73-76 biology, 144 faunistics; Karabag 1950: 154-5 comparison with P.
Here we provide new faunistic records for two Afrotropical species of Portia.
It is important to note that additional studies in localities at the periphery of the state, for instance, the areas adjacent to the states of San-Luis Potosi in the North, the state of Queretaro in the East, and the state of Jalisco in the South are in need of research for a more complete faunistic list.
We include a systematic list with all the records made around the islands of the Mexican Pacific as well as their affinities according to their faunistic composition.
The overall faunistic and hydrologic data suggest that even during a single climatic season, the zooplankton community shows strong changes due to mesoscale hydrological processes.
Although natural communities consist of both floristic and faunistic elements, the latter have not generally been emphasized in evaluating restoration success.