layer

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layer

1. one of four or more levels of vegetation defined in ecological studies: the ground or moss layer, the field or herb layer, the shrub layer, and one or more tree layers
2. a laying hen
3. Horticulture
a. a shoot or branch rooted during layering
b. a plant produced as a result of layering

layer

[′lā·ər]
(computer science)
One of the divisions within which components or functions are isolated in a computer system with layered architecture or a communications system with layered protocols.
(geology)
A tabular body of rock, ice, sediment, or soil lying parallel to the supporting surface and distinctly limited above and below.
(geophysics)
One of several strata of ionized air, some of which exist only during the daytime, occurring at altitudes between 30 and 250 miles (50 and 400 kilometers); the layers reflect radio waves at certain frequencies and partially absorb others.
(metallurgy)
The stratum of weld metal consisting of one or more passes and lying parallel to the welding surface.

course

course, 1
1. A layer of masonry units running horizontally in a wall or, much less commonly, curved over an arch; it is bonded with mortar.
2. A continuous row or layer of material, as shingles, tiles, etc.

layer

layer

(1) One of several "drawing boards" or "canvasses" for creating elements in a picture. See layers and flatten layers.

(2) One of several levels in a communications protocol. See OSI model.
References in periodicals archive ?
Zhao, "Utilization of human limbal mesenchymal cells as feeder layers for human limbal stem cells cultured on amniotic membrane," Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol.
[23] Approx 14 No No AS: autologous serum; FBS: fetal bovine serum; CL: contact lens; HAM: human amniotic membrane; 3T3:3T3 feeder layer; GMP: good manufacturing practice; Approx: approximately.
After 3 days of growth factor treatment, the expression levels of DE markers were increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas, the expression level of OCT4 was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the differentiated cells using different DE differentiation media and feeder layers (Figure 2).
The chicken embryonic stem cells obtained from stage X embryos were plated at a final concentration of 1.5 x [10.sup.4] cells per well in a basic culture medium with FBS on DF-1 feeder layers. Different growth factors were then added to the basic culture medium.
Lavoie et al., "Irradiated human dermal fibroblasts are as efficient as mouse fibroblasts as a feeder layer to improve human epidermal cell culture lifespan," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol.
After 4 passages, G418-resistant ESCs were obtained and grown on a feeder layer of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
Interpretation & conclusions: The limbal epithelial cells cultured in the presence of mitomycin C treated 3T3 feeder layer were able to maintain the expression of putative stem cell markers.
Unfortunately, previous studies focusing on HSPCs cocultured with other stromal cells analyzed expanded HSPCs as a single population: cells floating in the medium were not distinguished from cells attached to the feeder layer. In contrast, we separated HSPCs that were nonadherent from those that were adherent to the surface of the MSC layer.
In this study, scientists generated human iPS cell lines by using a method in which the feeder layer secretes a protein called LIF.
For in vitro culture, SSC-enriched cells (1 x [10.sup.5] cells/well) were plated on 0.1% Gelatin coated 4-well multidish (Falcon BD) with or without mitomycin C-treated STO cell feeder layer and cultured at 37[degrees]C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% C[O.sub.2] in air.
Briefly, after coculture with MSCs for 14 days, hematopoietic cells were cultured with the M210B4 stromal line as a feeder layer for 35 days.
In vivo fertilized porcine embryos were cultured in DMEM/F10 (50% low glucose DMEM and 50% F10) or DMEM/F12 (50% high glucose DMEM and 50% F-12) with 15% FBS (Hyclone) or 20% Knockout serum replacement (KSR), 1% nonessential amino acids, 1.7 mM L-glutamine, 1% antibiotic-antimycotic, and 0.1 mM [beta]-mercaptoethanol on a mytomycin-C (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) inactivated murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder layer. The culture medium supplemented with various combinations of cytokines, 1,000 units of hrLIF (Chemicon), 40 ng/ml hrSCF (R&D Systems), and 20 ng/ml hrbFGF (R&D Systems).