The four habitats consisted of snow beds, alpine meadows, Pinus scrub, and fell-fields (Figure 1).
Fell-fields were characterized by low soil water content, large mean substrate size, high mean ground surface temperature, high diurnal temperature range, and sparse vegetation cover.
Likewise, in fell-fields, total carabid beetle abundance decreased from July 24 to August 13 with less temporal variation.
Post hoc pairwise ANOSIM analyses revealed that the carabid beetle compositions on July 15 and 24 differed among snow beds, alpine meadows, Pinus scrub, and fell-fields (R [greater than or equal to] 0.778), but the differences between snow beds and alpine meadows were small on these dates (R = -0.250 to 0.167).
arboreus) species; and that of fell-fields consisted of small (Bembidion sp.), medium (C.
Hakusan could be generally classified into three distinct assemblages: those of snow beds and alpine meadows, Pinus scrub, and fell-fields. These carabid beetle assemblages were generally characterized by depauperate fauna, with only two to three species numerically dominating each habitat.
Although fell-fields were represented by six species of carabid beetles, only two small or medium nonmacropterous species (N.
In addition, fell-fields constitute a critical mountain ecosystem that is found only in high mountain areas constantly exposed to strong winds.