feminization

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feminization

(ofoccupation) the process, historically, in which certain occupations which women have entered (e.g. school teaching, nursing) have become regarded as womens work, with a consequent loss of income and status.

Feminization

 

the development of feminine secondary sex characteristics in a male. Feminization may occur in male fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals, as well as in human males. It may be experimentally induced in castrated males by the transplantation of an ovary or by injection of female sex hormones (estrogens).

An example of experimental feminization is M. M. Zavadovskii’s transplantation of an ovary into castrated roosters in the 1920’s. After a successful transplantation of the female sex gland, the roosters lost their head ornamentation and acquired the plumage and sex instinct characteristic of hens. In castrated male mammals, such as guinea pigs and rats, transplanted ovaries or estrogen injections cause the development of mammary glands and nipples and the appearance of the female sex instinct. In human males, feminization takes place after therapeutic castration in certain diseases; removal of the testes at an early age leads to the development of a female voice and skeletal proportions.

The opposite phenomenon is masculinization, the development of male secondary sex characteristics in a female. In birds, masculinization occurs as a result of the secretion of male sex hormones by the hypertrophic (normally rudimentary) right ovary after removal of the left ovary. Masculinization may be induced in castrated females by injections of male sex hormones. (For masculinization in humans, seeVIRILISM.)

References in periodicals archive ?
Dans cet article nous allons faire reference a la feminisation des noms de metiers en frangais puis a la feminisation des noms de metiers en roumain.
En 1984 en France une premiere mesure a ete prise--creer une commission de terminologie sur la feminisation des metiers, titres et fonctions des femmes.
Ces creations du debut du XXe siecle nous semblent d'autant plus etonnantes que la feminisation reste controversee au debut du XXIe siecle, surtout en France ou la resistance aux titres feminins est profonde.
En France, la Commission de terminologie etablie par Yvette Roudy, ministre des droits de la femme, et presidee par Benoite Groult, a etudie la question de la feminisation de 1984 a 1986, mais l'Academie francaise a empeche l'adoption de ses recommandations.
For my part, I am not in favour of the feminisation of job titles as, grammatically they are substantives and not adjectives and therefore there is no need to feminise them)
Les consequences de la feminisation de l'immigration sont particulierement frappantes lorsqu'on regarde du cote du processus d'identification des jeunes filles issues de l'immigration maghrebine.
Dr Rick Leah, a leading eco-toxicologist at Liverpool university, said: 'Most male fish in the estuary show signs of feminisation in the proteins in their blood.
Apres le Quebec (1986), Ia Suisse (1991) et la Belgique (1994), la France a finalement inscrit, en 1999, un ouvrage officiel sur la feminisation et c'est avec bonheur que nous avons accueilli ce guide produit par 1'Institut national de la langue francaise et preface par le Premier ministre, Monsieur Lionel Jospin.
As a former amateur boxer with a set of tough, old school trainers, I've long been concerned about the increasing feminisation of our footballers.
En dix ans, les progres dans ce domaine ont ete immenses de ce cote-ci de l'ocean (pour la France, c'est une autre histoire), et dans le langage officiel du Canada, la feminisation des titres, des noms de metiers et de fonctions quand ils s'appliquent a des femmes est la regle.
Further investigations were urged, amid concern that the chemicals could cause falling human sperm levels, female infertility, cancer and feminisation of male gulls and fish.
They are at the heart of concern about falling human sperm levels, female infertility, cancer and bizarre developments like feminisation of male gulls, fish and other wildlife.