feminization

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feminization

(ofoccupation) the process, historically, in which certain occupations which women have entered (e.g. school teaching, nursing) have become regarded as womens work, with a consequent loss of income and status.

Feminization

 

the development of feminine secondary sex characteristics in a male. Feminization may occur in male fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals, as well as in human males. It may be experimentally induced in castrated males by the transplantation of an ovary or by injection of female sex hormones (estrogens).

An example of experimental feminization is M. M. Zavadovskii’s transplantation of an ovary into castrated roosters in the 1920’s. After a successful transplantation of the female sex gland, the roosters lost their head ornamentation and acquired the plumage and sex instinct characteristic of hens. In castrated male mammals, such as guinea pigs and rats, transplanted ovaries or estrogen injections cause the development of mammary glands and nipples and the appearance of the female sex instinct. In human males, feminization takes place after therapeutic castration in certain diseases; removal of the testes at an early age leads to the development of a female voice and skeletal proportions.

The opposite phenomenon is masculinization, the development of male secondary sex characteristics in a female. In birds, masculinization occurs as a result of the secretion of male sex hormones by the hypertrophic (normally rudimentary) right ovary after removal of the left ovary. Masculinization may be induced in castrated females by injections of male sex hormones. (For masculinization in humans, seeVIRILISM.)

References in periodicals archive ?
Au sujet de la feminisation des agences de com, le chercheur a fait valoir que la sensibilite, les techniques d'expression, la curiosite d'esprit et le sens de l'ecoute et gout des relations humaines de la gent feminine offrent une souplesse a l'operation de communication et facilitent les echanges.
Dans cet article nous allons faire reference a la feminisation des noms de metiers en frangais puis a la feminisation des noms de metiers en roumain.
Ces creations du debut du XXe siecle nous semblent d'autant plus etonnantes que la feminisation reste controversee au debut du XXIe siecle, surtout en France ou la resistance aux titres feminins est profonde.
(For my part, I am not in favour of the feminisation of job titles as, grammatically they are substantives and not adjectives and therefore there is no need to feminise them)
La forte feminisation des populations immigrees force les autorites francaises a revoir le statut traditionnel confere aux femmes immigrees qui faisait de ces dernieres les protectrices des valeurs traditionnelles et familjales; ce role est contests par les femmes el1es-memes qui aspirent a plus d'autonomie, tout en desirant jouer un role social de premier plan.
A labour ministry official said all shops in capital Riyadh, which flouted a decree on the 'feminisation and nationalisation of jobs', would be shut down.
The project, which will focus on maths, English and science, also aims to address the issue of the perceived feminisation of the crafts sector whilst tackling the growing issue of underachieving boys in the education system.
Association of Secondary Teachers Ireland president Susie Hall said the Government should act to stop the increasing feminisation of the profession.
But the State of the Seas study by the environment department shows hormone levels in the Mersey are causing feminisation of male fish.
This article explores the extent of demographic, social and cultural feminisation of management following the post-1993 establishment of colleges as independent corporations.