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(ofoccupation) the process, historically, in which certain occupations which women have entered (e.g. school teaching, nursing) have become regarded as womens work, with a consequent loss of income and status.



the development of feminine secondary sex characteristics in a male. Feminization may occur in male fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals, as well as in human males. It may be experimentally induced in castrated males by the transplantation of an ovary or by injection of female sex hormones (estrogens).

An example of experimental feminization is M. M. Zavadovskii’s transplantation of an ovary into castrated roosters in the 1920’s. After a successful transplantation of the female sex gland, the roosters lost their head ornamentation and acquired the plumage and sex instinct characteristic of hens. In castrated male mammals, such as guinea pigs and rats, transplanted ovaries or estrogen injections cause the development of mammary glands and nipples and the appearance of the female sex instinct. In human males, feminization takes place after therapeutic castration in certain diseases; removal of the testes at an early age leads to the development of a female voice and skeletal proportions.

The opposite phenomenon is masculinization, the development of male secondary sex characteristics in a female. In birds, masculinization occurs as a result of the secretion of male sex hormones by the hypertrophic (normally rudimentary) right ovary after removal of the left ovary. Masculinization may be induced in castrated females by injections of male sex hormones. (For masculinization in humans, seeVIRILISM.)

References in periodicals archive ?
The book adds nuance to the broader literature on the feminization of migration and on care work with its attention to the details and influences of place, race, gender, class, and caste with a transnational lens.
The partial or incomplete form of testicular feminization syndrome is associated with wide range of genital abnormalities and typically present at birth with genital ambiguity.
What she finds is that women are less likely to integrate seamlessly and successfully into the workforce when the primary purpose for feminization is purely to insert female workers into labor-intensive industries.
On arguing on the feminization of labour, Gutierrez-Rodriguez points to the importance of 'domestic work in the production and reproduction of society', criticizing Marx's analysis of labour reproduction as having silenced the costs of reproduction of the housewife or domestic worker.
We are a generation of men raised by women," the charismatic Tyler Durden claims, and the effects of this feminization are everywhere evident: in male characters' obsession with shopping, in the dominance of a therapeutic model of affect, in the passivity produced within a bureaucratized white collar workplace.
The feminization of the medical work force, implications for Scottish primary care: a survey of Scottish general practitioners.
Women and the Criminal Justice System has been thoroughly updated to reflect the continuing impact of globalization and economic insecurity on the criminal justice system, as well as the increasing feminization of poverty.
Facial feminization surgery; a guide for the transgendered woman.
Balbisi continued, "I am against the universal resolution for the feminization of school.
They found very high concentrations of these hormone-mimicking phytoestrogens-up to 250 times higher than the level at which feminization of fish has been seen in other research-in the wastewater discharged from eight industrial sites, including biodiesel plants, a soy milk factory, a barbecue meat processing facility and a dairy.