feminization


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feminization

(ofoccupation) the process, historically, in which certain occupations which women have entered (e.g. school teaching, nursing) have become regarded as womens work, with a consequent loss of income and status.

Feminization

 

the development of feminine secondary sex characteristics in a male. Feminization may occur in male fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals, as well as in human males. It may be experimentally induced in castrated males by the transplantation of an ovary or by injection of female sex hormones (estrogens).

An example of experimental feminization is M. M. Zavadovskii’s transplantation of an ovary into castrated roosters in the 1920’s. After a successful transplantation of the female sex gland, the roosters lost their head ornamentation and acquired the plumage and sex instinct characteristic of hens. In castrated male mammals, such as guinea pigs and rats, transplanted ovaries or estrogen injections cause the development of mammary glands and nipples and the appearance of the female sex instinct. In human males, feminization takes place after therapeutic castration in certain diseases; removal of the testes at an early age leads to the development of a female voice and skeletal proportions.

The opposite phenomenon is masculinization, the development of male secondary sex characteristics in a female. In birds, masculinization occurs as a result of the secretion of male sex hormones by the hypertrophic (normally rudimentary) right ovary after removal of the left ovary. Masculinization may be induced in castrated females by injections of male sex hormones. (For masculinization in humans, seeVIRILISM.)

References in periodicals archive ?
This obscures the gendered patterns and effects of social reproduction, the expansion of raced and gendered informal sector activities, the feminization of insecure employment and welfare crises, and the politics of new consumption patterns and family formations.
The feminization of the Swedish commercial bank sector developed through three phases, peaking in the 1910s and 1960s, and declining during the decade of the 1920s.
Department of Education entitled, The Impact of Women on American Education, it is proposed that the feminization of teaching in the United States began in the 1830s, but increased dramatically during the Civil War (Kerber 1983, 19).
A paper by Martin's team due out soon in Aquatic Toxicology will make a similar link between a region's agricultural intensity and the feminization of local male amphibians--in this case northern leopard frogs.
A paper by Martin's team in the July 30 Aquatic Toxicology makes a similar link between agricultural intensity and the feminization of male amphibians--in this case northern leopard frogs.
I will argue here for the centrality of the issue of feminization to understanding Hemingway's first novel The Sun Also Rises.
In recent decades, countries like Canada have witnessed a feminization of professional employment.
The book's chapters cover at least five different subtopics: neo-liberal policy analysis; globalization; welfare state reform, global poverty; and the feminization of poverty.
The narrative I am referring to is what I call the "feminization of the writing center narrative," and one of its primary functions is to code the position of writing center director as "inferior," regardless of rank.
This political pattern, involving empathy and a continuous policy reference to children, has led Carnes Lord of the Naval War College to speculate about the ongoing "feminization" of American politics.
8 Stephanie Paterik, managing editor, Adweek; Amy Webb, author, The Big Nine; Bruce Duncan, managing director, Terasem Movement Foundation, speak to the feminization of AI.
Production in the last three years of YY males at the Universidad del Papaloapan has led to attempts to optimize the feminization process (Alcantar-Vazquez et al., 2015; Marin-Ramirez et al., 2016).