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(ofoccupation) the process, historically, in which certain occupations which women have entered (e.g. school teaching, nursing) have become regarded as womens work, with a consequent loss of income and status.



the development of feminine secondary sex characteristics in a male. Feminization may occur in male fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals, as well as in human males. It may be experimentally induced in castrated males by the transplantation of an ovary or by injection of female sex hormones (estrogens).

An example of experimental feminization is M. M. Zavadovskii’s transplantation of an ovary into castrated roosters in the 1920’s. After a successful transplantation of the female sex gland, the roosters lost their head ornamentation and acquired the plumage and sex instinct characteristic of hens. In castrated male mammals, such as guinea pigs and rats, transplanted ovaries or estrogen injections cause the development of mammary glands and nipples and the appearance of the female sex instinct. In human males, feminization takes place after therapeutic castration in certain diseases; removal of the testes at an early age leads to the development of a female voice and skeletal proportions.

The opposite phenomenon is masculinization, the development of male secondary sex characteristics in a female. In birds, masculinization occurs as a result of the secretion of male sex hormones by the hypertrophic (normally rudimentary) right ovary after removal of the left ovary. Masculinization may be induced in castrated females by injections of male sex hormones. (For masculinization in humans, seeVIRILISM.)

References in periodicals archive ?
And he did as today he is an asset to the community who nominated him as a peer educator for his efforts to prevent abuse of underage feminized males at the local gyms in the city.
But might not Adam, with his insecure interiority, be characterized as a feminized Jew?
Both class and gender politics are explored: the patriarchal Clifford Chatterley, although physically impotent, represents the power of the Law of the Name of the Father before which Mellors as well as Connie is feminized.
(8.) McIntyre, Eleanor, "Dental Hygiene: The Consequences of a Feminized Profession," Canadian Dental Hygiene/Probe.
Feminization is coming, and rather than bemoan the fact that PR will be feminized, why not assert that in a world heading for feminization, PR is in the lead?
Those who are searching for an engendered Civil War will welcome Elizabeth Fox Genovese's "Days of Judgment, Days of Wrath: The Civil War and the Religious Imagination of Women Writers" and Drew Faust's "Without Pilot or Compass: Elite Women and Religion in the Civil War South." Both essays advance the idea of feminized religion while highlighting the blurred boundaries of womanhood during the war.
In Expt 2, participants chose the most attractive face from sets of images containing feminized as well as masculinized images for each sex, and spanning a wider range of exaggeration levels than in Expt 1.
According to their account, Henderson would have testified that he and McKinney targeted Shepard for being gay and that McKinney "feminized" his voice when they approached Shepard.
As the occupation feminized during the decade, however, it became integrated, with women comprising 56 percent of the workforce in 1980 (U.S.
Over the last century, Fukuyama notes, world politics has been gradually becoming feminized, "with very positive effects.
Chris Matthews on The McLaughlin Group likened the recent Carter-versus-Clinton wrangling over Haiti to "girls fighting in the school yard." In this subtle but relentless discourse, Clinton is a failure because he is too much like a girl and has feminized the Presidency.
The question of why the fetish should be feminized is not directly addressed until chapter 5, where a dual answer (male-gendered fetishism implies female genital inferiority; granting perversion to women dislocates essentialism) is proposed in passing but not worked through.