During the Late Glacial, fen peat
(mainly brown moss peat and sedge-brown moss peat) was the most common in the deposit, which means that brown moss communities dominated on the studied site.
The following organic materials were used for mulching: chopped wheat straw, regularly cut grass from grass-plots, sawdust of different tree species, and medium decomposed fen peat
. Mulch was spread manually in 5 cm and 10 cm thick layers shortly after sowing (planting).
At Joelahtme the buried fen peat
was earlier dated to 8700-8400 yr BP (Kessel & Punning 1974).
Stratigraphy: Found at the interface between fen peat
and Sphagnum bog peat, always associated with Calliergon trifarium but in lesser quantity.
The richness of subfossil remains in the Sphagnum-peat decreased substantially as compared to the fen peat
. This is attributed to dryer conditions on the surface of the peat created in part by peat buildup and hummocks of living Sphagnum projecting above the wet substrate.
It is also possible to distinguish locally different peat layers from the radar images: Sphagnum-dominated relatively poorly decomposed bog peat is marked by numerous horizontally oriented and undulating reflectors, while the underlying strongly decomposed fen peat
is lacking inner reflectors (Fig.
The H/C ratios in HAs from Eipurs Bog in fen peat
were the lowest at a depth of 3.5-4.62 m.
Lake sediments were superceded by fen peat
, which occupied from 40-55% of the total volume of the basins of leatherleaf bogs.
The thickness of the fen peat
in the central part of the bog is about 1-1.5 m and less than 1 m in the border areas.
Raised and transition bog Sphagnum peat with a mean thickness of 1.84 m (max 3.6 m) were reported to occur mainly in the central, bare area (~0.2 [km.sup.2]) and in the closest forested surroundings, whereas fen peat
(mean thickness 1.04 m, max 1.7 m) prevails in the fringe of the studied site.
Lower C/N ratios for the basal fen peat
([greater than] 350 cm) are explained by the lower C/N ratios of its original components (Kuhry et al.
Germany, Austria, Finland), well-humified raised bog and fen peat
is used, from raised bogs mainly Sphagnum (humification H6-H8) and from fens Carex peat (humification H8-H10) (Naucke 1981).