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common name for members of the large family Columbidae, land birds, cosmopolitan in temperate and tropical regions, characterized by stout bodies, short necks, small heads, and thick, heavy plumage. The names dove and pigeon are used interchangeably, though the former generally refers to smaller members of the family.

All pigeons have soft swellings (ceres) at the base of the nostrils, feed their young with "pigeon's milk" regurgitated from the crops of the parents, and have specialized bills through which they can suck up water steadily, unlike other birds. They eat chiefly fruits and seeds. From ancient times, pigeons—especially homing pigeons, which are also used as racing birds—have been used for carrying messages. Although electronics has largely replaced them as messengers, they are still of experimental importance. It is thought that they may navigate by the sun. Monogamous and amorous, pigeons are known for their soft cooing calls.

The most common American wild pigeon is the small, gray-brown mourning dove Zenaidura macroura (sometimes called turtledove), similar to the once abundant passenger pigeon, which was slaughtered indiscriminately and became extinct in 1914. Other wild American species are the band-tailed, red-billed, and white-crowned pigeons, all of the genus Columba, and the reddish brown ground-doves (genus Columbina). The Australasian region has two thirds of the 289 species of pigeons, of which the fruit pigeons are the most colorful and the gouras, or crowned pigeons, the largest (to 33 in./84 cm). In Europe the turtledove, rock pigeon or dove, stock dove, and ringdove or wood pigeon are common. The rock dove, Columba livia, of temperate Europe and W Asia is the wild progenitor of the common street and domestic pigeons. Domesticated varieties developed by selective breeding include the fantail, with numerous erectile tail feathers; the Jacobin, with a hoodlike ruff; the tumbler, which turns backward somersaults in flight; the pouter, with an enormous crop; and the quarrelsome carrier, with rosettelike eyes and nose wattles.

Many species are valued as game birds; their close relationship to the Gallinae (e.g., pheasants and turkeys) is illustrated by the sand grouse, an Old World pigeon named for its resemblance to the grouse. In religion and art the dove symbolizes peace and gentleness, and in Greek mythology it was sacred to Aphrodite. The long-extinct dodododo,
a flightless forest-dwelling bird of Mauritius, extinct since the late 17th cent. The dodo was closely related to the Rodrigues solitaire, extinct flightless giant found on another island in the Mascarene Islands.
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 and Rodrigues solitaire were members of the pigeon family.

Pigeons are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Aves, order Columbiformes, family Columbidae.


(vertebrate zoology)
Any of various stout-bodied birds in the family Columbidae having short legs, a bill with a horny tip, and a soft cere.


any of numerous birds of the family Columbidae, having a heavy body, small head, short legs, and long pointed wings: order Columbiformes
References in periodicals archive ?
Mycotic flora in the lower digestive tract of feral pigeons (Columbialivia) in the El Paso, Texas area.
After developing the blueprint for pigeons, the researchers analysed genomes of two feral pigeons living a great distance from one another.
And note, wild-living, former racing and homing pigeons often fly with feral pigeons but these birds are strictly protected as they are still regarded as the property of their original owner.
In a single year, a feral pigeon can eat its way through 64 lbs of food.
Genotype B has been isolated mainly from feral pigeons and several other bird species; this genotype is considered endemic in European nonpsittacine birds (3,11).
The variant is Pigeon PMV1, which is common in feral pigeons population, but which rarely infects commercial poultry flocks.
Perhaps the Government should limit the increase of feral pigeons, seagulls and rats, whose growing populations are a threat to health.
Some experts recognize as many as 28 different feather colors and patterns among feral pigeons, ranging from pure white to virtually pitch-black.
Indeed, Dad has such a reputation among Cardiff's feral pigeons that only a brave few dare return to make roosts inside the pounds 124million stadium.
3% of feral pigeons were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, whereas all samples of racing pigeons were PCR negative.
He is also charged with causing unnecessary suffering to two feral pigeons by placing them alive with ferrets, and taking wild pigeons to feed ferrets.
The management of feral pigeon in urban areas is a serious issue in various countries because the regular supply of food encourages the population of feral pigeons.