The study represents the first example of a native metal with bistable and electrically switchable spontaneous polarization states -- the hallmark of ferroelectricity
In the past, we have synthesized lanthanum lithium niobate ([La.sub.0.05][Li.sub.0.85]Nb[O.sub.3]) and lithium niobate (LiNb[O.sub.3]) nanocrystals with ferromagnetic, magnetoelectric, relaxor ferroelectricity
, and optic properties by using mechanochemical alloying followed by a reduction heat treatment (RHT) process [31, 32].
Schroder et al., "Ferroelectricity
in simple binary Zr[O.sub.2] and Hf[O.sub.2]," Nano Letters, vol.
The strontium barium niobate [Sr.sub.x][Ba.sub.1-x][Nb.sub.2][O.sub.6] (SBN) nanocrystals have exhibited a variety of ferroelectricity
[2-4], photorefractive , electrooptic, nonlinear optical [1, 6], and thermoelectric properties  which are potentially important for many applications in various fields.
On the other hand, the odd and odd-odd nylons exhibit functional characteristics like ferroelectricity
and piezoelectricity for potential applications [6-10].
Oxide ferroelectric material used in the FRAMs is reduced by hydrogen gas generated during the conventional semiconductor process, and the reaction causes the degradation of the ferroelectricity
. Fujitsu Semiconductor developed the technology that could prevent the ferroelectricity
degradation, and made the volume production of FRAMs possible.
is an electrical phenomenon of ferroelectric materials may exhibit a spontaneous polarization which the direction of the polarization can be switched by the application of an external electric field.
Bauerle, "Origin of raman scattering and ferroelectricity
in oxidic perovskites," Physical Review Letters, vol.
Multiferroics--which simultaneously display ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity
and often ferroplasticity--are attracting considerable attention because of the interesting physics involved and the promise of important practical applications.
Only the I-form crystal exhibits sufficiently high ferroelectricity
. Kodani and Imahori have found that the I-form crystal structure is dramatically improved by a simple treatment of dissolving the vinylidene fluoride homopolymer in a specific organic solvent or in a solution containing the organic solvent, and then evaporating the organic solvent.
The second edition of this text for graduate and advanced undergraduates reviews research, developments, and obstacles in the commercialization of ferroelectricity
over the past ten years, reflecting recent work in nano and optical technologies, environmental regulation, and alternative energy sources.