Logistic regression was used to test the association between SNPs and festination
: a symptom characterized by small, quick forward steps.
Specific abnormalities have been described following the advent of the modified barium swallow (MBS) including oral-stage abnormalities of 'festination
' of the tongue with repetitive tongue elevations (pumping) and prolonged 'ramping' of the tongue in an attempt to initiate a swallow (3)(4).
As the disease progresses, steps become short and shuffling (festination
), associated arm movements are lost, and sudden "freezing" impairs turning and initiation of gait.
Motor disturbances, including postural instability, festination
, freezing episodes, and dyskinesia (Stacy, 1999), can prevent or delay access to a toilet and lead to UI (Giladi et al., 2000).
Gait problems such as festination
and freezing are thought to be strongly influenced by visual stimulation .
Defebvre, "Oral festination
in Parkinson's disease: biomechanical analysis and correlation with festination
and freezing of gait," Movement Disorders, vol.