retardation

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Related to fetal growth retardation: IUGR

retardation:

see mental retardationmental retardation,
below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living.
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retardation

(ree-tar-day -shŏn) The difference in the Moon's rising time between successive nights.

Retardation

 

in biology, the late formation and delayed development of an organ in offspring as compared with ancestors. Retardation depends on the beginning of the functioning of an organ and consequently on the environmental conditions in which the development of the individual organism (ontogeny) occurs.


Retardation

 

(1) In linguistics, a variation of the phenomenon of phonetic analogy consisting of a change in the form of a word (lexeme) under the influence of the phonetic form of another lexeme that precedes it in context. Retardation is characteristic of numbers, for example, Tadzhik shonzdakh (“sixteen”), instead of the expected shazdakh, by analogy with ponzdakh (“fifteen”). The same phenomenon operating in the reverse direction is known as anticipation, for example, Russian deviat’ (“nine”), instead of neviat’, under the influence of desiat’ (“ten”).

(2) In poetics, a compositional technique of holding back the development of the plot; it is accomplished by such means as lyric digressions, descriptions of landscapes or interiors, and the repetition of episodes of the same type.

retardation

[‚rē‚tär′dā·shən]
(medicine)
Slow mental or physical functioning.
(navigation)
The amount of delay in time or phase angle introduced by the resistivity of the surface over which the radio wave in radio navigation is passing.
(oceanography)
The amount of time by which corresponding tidal phases grow later day by day, averaging approximately 50 minutes.
(optics)
In interference microscopy, the difference in optical path between the light passing through the specimen and the light bypassing the specimen. Also known as optical-path difference.

retardation

Reduction in the rate of hardening or setting; an increase in the time required to reach initial and final set or to develop early strength of fresh concrete, mortar, plaster, or grout.
References in periodicals archive ?
Detailed analyses of several molecular regulators yielded data consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol- induced fetal growth retardation occurs, for the most part, as a result of impaired placental development and transport of nutrients resulting primarily from disruption of the maternal GH-IGF system (Shankar et al.
A prospective study of 218 high-risk infants born in 1978 found fetal growth retardation is the primary risk factor for learning deficits later in life.
The meta-analysis suggests that confounding facts -- such as other drugs, alcohol and smoking -- may account for the fetal growth retardation or prematurity commonly ascribed to cocaine, the researchers assert in the October TERATOLOGY.
However recent studies found out that the placenta was mostly normal or larger with no fetal growth retardation in late onset preeclampsia but was hypoplastic and associated with fetal growth retardation when preeclampsia was early onset, suggesting probably early onset preeclampsia is a placental disorder whereas late onset is a maternal disorder.
Cardiac and obstetric complications are common, including New York Heart Association functional class deterioration, atrial fibrillation, gestational hypertension, premature rupture of the membranes, and fetal growth retardation.
Inadequately treated depression also poses prenatal and neonatal risks, including increased rates of fetal growth retardation, preterm delivery, operative delivery, and mental retardation, as well as decreased Apgar scores and altered mother-infant bonding, he said.
The current Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines on weight gain--which recommend a gain of 25-35 pounds for normal-weight women with a singleton pregnancy--are too high and are based on historical concerns about the effects of famine on fetal growth retardation.
Fetal growth retardation ranks third after prematurity and malformations as a cause of perinatal deaths.