Further, using coordinate transformation approach analogous to that in transformation optics, an analytical expression for the electric field bending angle [theta] has been found for arbitrary orientation of the layers with respect to the applied static current.
The possibility of the tunable field bending in multilayered structures by changing [phi] can find widespread applications in various devices based on the control and manipulation of dc electric field such as solar cells, batteries, multilayered thin-film sensors, and flat-panel displays and in computer chips.
Caption: FIGURE 2: Dependence of the electric field bending angle [absolute value of ([theta])] on the layers' orientation angle [phi] at five different values of the resistivity ratio [gamma] = [[rho].sub.2]/[[rho].sub.1]
As an example, a gas utility wanted to know if a bending stress would cause failure at the outlet of a particular service fitting, the gas utility would prepare the assemblies and ship them to Jana, which developed a bending jig to duplicate the field bending
For example, a 6-inch diameter coupling has a 10 inch overall length (standard coupling OAL is 6.375 inches).The deep socket allows more joint deflection for cold field bending
than injection molded couplings and Standard socket depth couplings.
* Special tests were carried out to determine whether field bending
the 48-inch pipe, insulated with four inches of polyurethane (total diameter of 56 inches) was possible without damaging the insulation.
This tough outer coating also retains a high degree of flexibility that exceeds specification limits of steel for field bending