Nonetheless, the fact that both species can simultaneously complete their life cycles in the same host suggests the existence of competitive exclusion, as it seems to occur in human filariae
in Africa .
Although a range of nematodes from ascarids and hookworms to strongylids can invade the eyes, most reported cases of ocular nematode infections have been caused by the filariae
which can infect the eyelids, lacrimal glands, conjunctival sacs, orbit, or ocular globe.
The zoonotic filariae
, Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are increasingly recognized as inadvertent human pathogens.
Wolbachia is also common in filarial nematodes where its removal from the female filariae
by antibiotic treatments caused permanent sterilization (7) or resulting in embryo degeneration in the filarial worms Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis (8) and in worm sterility in Onchocerca volvulus (9).
Nitric oxide synthase in filariae
: demonstration of nitric oxide production by embryos in Brugict malayi and Acanthocheilonema viteae Exp.
Wuchereres, who in 1866 discovered the micro filariae
in Urine of a patient suspected of suffering from urinary bilharziasis.
Diagnostic features of zoonotic filariae
in tissue sections.