These swell when you have an infection of cancer as they work in overdrive to try and contain the problem.In elephantiasis (scientifically referred to as lymphatic filariasis), the adult filarial
worms enter the lymphatic system where they live for their entire lifespan of about six years.
When we analyzed other associated infections (Table 2), we found an important difference between SMM and non-SMM patients regarding filarial
Subramani et al., "Coincident filarial
, intestinal helminth, and mycobacterial infection: Helminths fail to influence tuberculin reactivity, but BCG influences hookworm prevalence," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.
The supergroups C and D are obligate and beneficial endosymbionts in some filarial
Kriiger, "Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and an unidentified filarial
species in mosquitoes in Germany," Parasites & Vectors, vol.
In addition to a filarial
infection caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, the most common etiology of secondary penoscrotal lymphedema, several conditions are known to be causative.
In humans, 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (or intestinal nematodes) that persist in the intestine as adult worms for a prolonged period of time , filarial
nematodes are tissue-dwelling parasites of more than 150 million people , while blood flukes (schistosomes) infect about 240 million people worldwide and induce chronic systemic and liver disease .
Wolbachia endosymbiontic bacteria are found in mutualistic relationship in many filarial
nematodes infecting animals and humans including W.
Species of the genus Dipetalonema Diesing 1861 sensu stricto are filarial
parasites of Neotropical monkeys (Bain et al.
Of the various described filarial
parasites, only a few cause infection in humans.
Clients with history of diabetes, previous scrotal surgery, hernia surgery, filarial
thickening of skin and filarial
funiculitis and any other scrotal pathology, which would make isolation of vas difficult were excluded from the study.
 detected filarial
antibody by indirect fluorescent antibody technique in 90 amicrofilaraemic sera of patients among a cohort of 324 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of LF and reported an unequal prevalence among ethnic groups (Indians 48%, Malays 36%, and Chinese 15%).