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Related to filings: IPO filings, Fillings


1. Chess any of the eight vertical rows of squares on a chessboard
2. Computing a named collection of information, in the form of text, programs, graphics, etc., held on a permanent storage device such as a magnetic disk


a hand tool consisting essentially of a steel blade with small cutting teeth on some or all of its faces. It is used for shaping or smoothing metal, wood, etc.
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a cutting tool with rows of cutting teeth along the working surfaces (planes or edges). The first files date from the early Iron Age (Hallstatt culture, c. 900–400 B.C.) and were one of the tools used by iron forgers. The instrument became widespread after the emergence of specialists in metalworking (ancient Rome). Files originally had parallel cutting ridges; later they acquired intersecting ridges. (Such files first appeared in Rus’ in the 12th century.) The following files are distinguished: bastard files (coarse cut), smooth-cut files (fine cut), and barette files (finest cut). Small files with fine cut are usually called needle files.

The cross sections of files may be rectangular, semicircular, triangular, or square. Rasps, files with separate points, are used for working wood and other nonmetallic materials. Files are used manually or mounted on special filing machines.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(computer science)
A collection of related records treated as a unit.
(design engineering)
A steel bar or rod with cutting teeth on its surface; used as a smoothing or forming tool.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


file: nomenclature
A metal (usually steel) tool having a rectangular, triangular, round, or irregular section and either tapering or of uniform width and thickness, covered on one or more of its surfaces with teeth or oblique ridges; used for abrading, reducing, or smoothing metal, wood, or other materials.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(file system)
An element of data storage in a file system.

The history of computing is rich in varied kinds of files and file systems, whether ornate like the Macintosh file system or deficient like many simple pre-1980s file systems that didn't have directories. However, a typical file has these characteristics:

* It is a single sequence of bytes (but consider Macintosh resource forks).

* It has a finite length, unlike, e.g., a Unix device.

* It is stored in a non-volatile storage medium (but see ramdrive).

* It exists (nominally) in a directory.

* It has a name that it can be referred to by in file operations, possibly in combination with its path.

Additionally, a file system may support other file attributes, such as permissions; timestamps for creation, last modification, and last access and revision numbers (a` la VMS).

Compare: document.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (


A collection of bytes stored as an individual entity on every computer-based mobile or desktop device. A file is the common denominator of storage. All data and programs, no matter which kind, are stored as files with an assigned file name that must be unique within the storage folder (directory) it resides in. Files with the same name can reside in separate folders. See folder.

Computers Know Nothing About Data Files
To the computer, a data file is nothing more than a string of bytes that is identified by name and location in storage. Once read into the computer's RAM, the structure of a file is known to the software that manipulates it. For example, database files are made up of a series of records (rows) such as one per customer, vendor or transaction. Word processing files contain a continuous flow of text interspersed with format codes (tags).

Except for ASCII text files, which contain only raw text, all other data files have proprietary structures. Formatting and descriptive information are contained in headers at the beginning of the file and/or in tags interspersed throughout the file. XML is an example of a very popular tagged text file. See metadata and XML.

Computers Are Savvy About Program Files
In contrast to data files, the computer itself is inherently aware of the content of an executable program file, which contains machine instructions. When given the starting point of an instruction in RAM, the computer expects to find the bytes in the machine language format it recognizes and can execute, one instruction after the other (see machine language).

Everything Stored Is a File
The common unit of storage no matter what the application is the file.

File Contents
Following are the major file types and the data structures they contain. See file association, ASCII file, file system and files vs. folders.

DataFile Type       Contents

 data file       text & binary
  (table)         (rows/records)

 document        text & format codes

 spreadsheet     rows/columns of cells

 image           rows/columns of pixels

 drawing         list of vectors

 CD audio        digitized sound waves

  audio (MP3,    compressed digitized
  AAC, etc.)     sound waves

 MIDI            MIDI instructions

 video           digital video frames

 Web page        text, HTML tags &
  (HTML file)     JavaScript

 XML file        text

 batch file      text

 text file       text

 SoftwareFile Type       Contents

 source code     text

  language       binary (bytecode)

 executable      binary
  program         (machine language)
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
Companies that are "accelerated filers" should analyze their existing procedures for preparing periodic reports and determine what changes are necessary to comply with the accelerated filing requirements.
But with these standards, most corporate tax filings and reports are still printed and sent by mail or fax, and they are based on manually inputting data into different internal and external information systems -- often many times.
"Because it is important businesses' workers comp insurance rates be calculated using accurate information, I directed Insurance Department staff to give these filings immediate attention, and am issuing this approval now so the new rates can take effect on January 1," Altman said in a press release issued by the Pennsylvania Insurance Department.
There were nine business-related filings in June compared to seven in May and two in April.
Mina added at the seminar, which the American Chamber of Commerce in Egypt held on Wednesday, that the Egyptian Tax Authority (ETA) is implementing a plan to fully switch companies to electronic filing.
The Florida Courts E-Filing Authority on June 27 voted to set a two-week application period between August 1 and August 15 for interested parties who want to develop "batch" electronic filing programs for use with the statewide e-filing portal for civil cases.
While some progress seems therefore to have been made in addressing the view that software cannot be protected in at least some parts of Europe, and European companies are as a whole, just about filing more patent applications in this area, the European software sector has a long way to go to catch up with the traditional high-tech powerhouses of the US and Japan (0.8% decrease in filings but still 14% of total filings), which combined accounted for over half of the computer technology patent applications in Europe in 2014.
bankruptcy filings increased 8 percent over calendar year 2009, according to a Feb.
"Although the financial services industry, with 20 filings, continues to have the largest number of filings, the health industry, which includes filings in both the pharmaceutical and health services industries (with 17 filings) is not far behind," said Grace Lamont, principal and U.S.
There were 381,073 bankruptcy filings in the quarter ending June 30, compared with 330,477 for the quarter ending March 31 and 276,510 for the quarter ending June 30, 2008.
And in terms of e-filing benefits, 12 percent said it forced them to examine work processes and future filings should be more efficient.