HFSS simulations show that both the bandwidth and the center frequency of the BSF can be tuned by modifying the ground plane EBG pattern filling factor
and period, respectively.
Therefore, the adaptively changed filling factor
can be written as
Therefore, a linear and exponential filling factor
functions f(x) are considered as follows:
Poor drilling and blasting operations cause substandard digging operation resulting in reduced filling factor
. The filling factor
for the shovel under consideration was observed to be 90%.
However, diffraction characteristics of the TIR-based grating structures are highly sensitive to those geometric properties, pitch, filling factor
, and depth, that the proper design methods to be able to solve global numerical optimization problems with continuous variables have been becoming issues for many optical applications [5-8].
As shown in Table 1, the short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage, conversion efficiency, and filling factor
of DSSCs with Ti[Cl.sub.4] pretreatment are greatly improved.
It was shown that a phase transition in an inhomogeneous state may occur in 1D system of particles of two kinds with the increase of filling factor
. Such a phase transition occurs due to an effective particle attraction and is characterised by the formation of clusters of a finite size 33].
The effect of filling factor
, permittivity profile index of the graded dielectric layer and incident angles on the band gaps and reflectivity are analyzed by using Equations (8) and (12).
Let us denote this number as the filling factor
of a cluster (student group).
where [[epsilon].sub.i] and [[epsilon].sup.e] are the dielectric functions of the inclusion and host material respectively (here, a metal and a dielectric), [PSI] is a constant relating the fields inside and outside the inclusions (typically [PSI] = 3 for spherical inclusions), f is the filling factor
or ratio of the volume of the inclusion to the total size of the unit cell .
The SM2315DT SmartMotor has an eight-pole compact rotor design with more copper filling factor
than in conventional designs.