In fact, as shown above (Figure 4(d)), the examined films contain a lot of pores and, as a result, the film density
should be much lower, and the hydrogen content is higher than the calculated values.
where [V.sub.2] [[cm.sup.3] * [mol.sup.-1]] is the molar volume of the deionized water, [[rho].sub.WPI] (1.40 [+ or -] 0.06 [g * [cm.sup.-3]]) is the film density
(evaluated following ), [[phi].sub.1] [-] is the volume fraction of the polymer in the swollen gel, and [chi] is the interaction parameter of the water and the WPI.
Larger refractive index in this mode could be owing to the enhancement in film density
(lower porosity) [32, 33] and/or due to oxygen deficiency in the film .
These observations raise the issue of a trade-off between film thickness and film density
. It was therefore theorized that film density
could be adjusted by fine-tuning the concentrations of each PE.
It may, however, be possible to extract other parameters of interest, such as surface and film density
, as well as surface roughness from the same measurement.
The results demonstrate the progressive rise of the film density
along with the rise of silica concentration (Fig.
Two traces for DR of 3.5 and 6 of un-annealed films reveal that the film density
levels off or decreases at/above 4 wt% and the third reveals the sharp annealing effect on a drawn film.
However, it has been difficult for barrier dielectrics to fulfill both the requirements of low k-value and perfect blocking properties because the latter property is usually diminished by reducing the k-value or essentially the film density
Current physical cavitation processes can reduce BOPP film density
to 0.5 to 0.6 g/cc.
An additional potential advantage of XRP is the ability to quantify not only the average film density
, but also the density profile normal to the film surface.
This densitometer transmits single wavelength light through X-ray film and indicates film density
within the range from 0.00 to 4.00 (the maximum density).