Because the potassium humate contains many active functional groups such as the carboxyl group, the phenol hydroxyl group, the alcohol hydroxyl group, the carbonyl group, and the methoxy group, it can be strongly adsorbed by clay particles to form thin and elastic filter cake to reduce the filter loss
. At the same time, because the special size of k+ has, it can generate fixed effects on the crystal lattice of the clay mineral and result in inhibiting the clay hydration.
The prepared co-polymer cationic surfactants ST and [ST.sub.2] were evaluated as viscosifier and filter loss
additives in water-based mud.
The zeta electric potential and API filter loss
have been measured by zeta potential analyzer and medium-pressure filtration apparatus, respectively.
(37 Pa) for a 3 ton (10.6 kW) unit with a filter loss
of 0.08 in.
It is a remarkable achievement to improve the efficacy of the wireless transmission system by reducing the dependency on a power amplifier to compensate for the passive filter loss
. (iii) Thirdly, the other unique filter performance requirements of (a) high selectivity for image frequency rejection and (b) high order harmonics suppression for channel integrity between various physiological parameters have been achieved with two newly-designed DGSs (inter-digital and spiral) on the ground plane of the BPF.
The combined total of the input and output switches and the filter loss
provide the 7.5 dB maximum loss specified.
The reflection from the test port connected to the output port of the filter is attenuated by twice the filter loss
- in this case, only 2 dB, This value is not adequate to suppress the effects of this error signal sufficiently, which illustrates why low loss bidirectional devices are difficult to measure accurately.
For this configuration, NF = [1 + ([L.sub.c][L.sub.f] - 1)T/290] + (F - 1)[L.sub.c][L.sub.f], where [L.sub.c] is the cable loss, [L.sub.f] is the filter loss
, T is the temperature of the components in Kelvin and F is the NF of the amplifier.
The IF filter loss
is less than 0.3 dB up to 3 GHz and the LO bandpass filter loss
is around 1.5 dB in the 10 to 16 GHz range, as shown in Figure 7
If the loss from two that passes through a hybrid is 0.05 dB, ten hybrids would add 0.5 dB of total filter loss
Since losses also increase with widening gap, the maximum Q available in the oscillator is limited by the amplifier gain, which should compensate for the filter losses
. As opposed to the oscillator shown in Vidmar, (1) where several varactors (up to nine) are needed to tune the phase velocity of an interdigital bandpass filter, in this case only one varactor can tune the oscillator frequency in a range of 1:3 or more.
This amplifier provides 15 dB of variable gain to allow correction for all the various IF and RF filter losses
. This gain also may be adjusted in real time if necessary.