It was found by Huang et al that 15% sodium phosphate dibasic solution significantly reduced the final setting time
of white mineral trioxide aggregate and also improved its apical sealing ability15.
Figure 3 shows the initial and final setting time
of each mixture.
It can be seen from the results that the esters prolonged the initial setting time and final setting time
of the cement, and the initial finishing time of the cement gradually prolonged with the increase of the ester.
The setting time of the slurry or solution includes the initial setting time and the final setting time
The physicochemical properties including flow, final setting time
, radiopacity, dimensional stability, and pH change were examined according to modified ISO 6876/2012 standards  and ANSI/ADAs specifications number 57 .
Results reveals that blended cement need higher initial setting time as compare to ordinary Portland cement, in addition to this final setting time
is also a little greater if comparing to OPC.
Omar al-Azzawi, a Masters student in the project team, claimed that using the mix design specified in the research will reduce the concrete final setting time
Considering the less rigorous US EPA acceptance quality criteria of 72 h for final setting time
, inadequate values were obtained for soil A at a S:B ratio of 5.0 for any Pb contamination level and at a S:B ratio of 4.0 only for a C of 25000 mg [kg.sup.-1].
From results, it can be seen that the initial and final setting time
of mortar premixed with copolymer latex containing 95% 2-HEA were longer than those of the corresponding references mortar M0, while the incorporation of copolymer latex containing 85% 2-HEA reduced the initial and final setting times
of mortar with varying amounts of FA.
It is obvious that the final setting time
which is the hardening time for all POFA geopolymer pastes is not less than 2 hours and not more than 3 hours by suing oven curing method at 60 C.
A Vicat apparatus was used to measure standard consistence, and initial and final setting time
after the reactants were mixed together and placed in a mould.