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theory and practice of conducting large public and private dealings in money. Important institutions of private finance include those that deal with insuranceinsurance
or assurance,
device for indemnifying or guaranteeing an individual against loss. Reimbursement is made from a fund to which many individuals exposed to the same risk have contributed certain specified amounts, called premiums.
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, bankingbanking,
primarily the business of dealing in money and instruments of credit. Banks were traditionally differentiated from other financial institutions by their principal functions of accepting deposits—subject to withdrawal or transfer by check—and of making loans.
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, stocks (see stockstock,
in finance, instrument certifying to shares in the ownership of a corporation. Bonds are similar evidences of shares in a loan to a corporation. Stock yields no dividends until claims of bondholders have been met.
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), bonds, and other securities. With the development of the national state, public finance—the management of the revenues, expenditures, and debts of the state—has been of great political, as well as economic, importance. The most important source of government revenue is taxes, but sale of public properties and franchises, as well as the sale of interest-bearing bonds, also contribute. Since the Korean War, a large part of governmental expenditures has gone for various military and defense needs. Other important areas of governmental expenditure are health, education, and welfare (the Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid programs); interest on the national debt; and public works. Important institutions of international finance are the International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentInternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
(IBRD), independent specialized agency of the United Nations, with headquarters at Washington, D.C.; one of five closely associated development institutions (also including the International Center for Settlement of
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 and the International Monetary FundInternational Monetary Fund
(IMF), specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1945. It was planned at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944), and its headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
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See D. Allen, Finance (1983); D. Swain, Managing Public Money (1987); L. Harris et al., ed., New Perspectives on the Financial System (1988); N. Gianaris, Contemporary Public Finance (1989).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


See also Money.
the Paris stock exchange. [Fr. Commerce: Misc.]
Dow Jones
the best known of several U.S. indexes of movements in price on Wall Street. [Am. Hist.: Payton, 202]
Lombard Street
London bankers’ row; named for 13th-century Italian moneylenders. [Br. Hist.: Plumb, 15]
Old Lady of Threadneedle Street
nickname for the Bank of England. [Br. Culture: Misc.]
goddess of commerce. [Gk. Myth.: Kravitz, 88]
Rockefeller, John
D(avison) (1839–1937) multimillionaire oil tycoon and financier, [Am. Hist.: EB, VIII: 623]
Throgmorton Street
location of Stock Exchange; by extension, financial world. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1079]
Wall Street N.Y.C.
financial district. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 530]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. funds or the provision of funds
2. funds; financial condition
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Around 90% of purchases of cars both brand new cars and used cars are financed with credits for finance companies or banks.
While national scandals may provide fertile ground for reform, the best advertisements for Clean Elections at the national level are the seven states and two cities that have already established publicly financed elections.
One of the mysteries of premium financing is just how much of it is out there in the industry at any given time: The percentage of premiums financed remains undetermined.
Those who fail to insure will gain access to quality LTC services in the private market financed by a government-backed, privately administered reverse mortgage on their estates.
Add all this up, and it is clear that most congressional campaign have been almost entirely financed by corporate interests.
Acknowledging that a complex financing arrangement may involve a number of IEs and the amount financed may not be the same at each step, the regulations look at the smallest link in the chain of transactions by recharacterizing only the smallest financing amount common to all of the transactions.
The intermediate entity is related to either the financing or financed entity, or b.
Around 80% of credits offered by BFI Finance were financed with loans from banks and the rest from bonds.
These underwriting requirements will vary from the types of projects a lender is willing to finance to the amount being financed and the associated interest rate.
"We have seen large bond issues for highways that before were financed abroad in dollars," Goldstein says.
Cross-default provisions are important, because if a facility we have financed is doing poorly, we want the operator to use income from other properties to meet the obligation to us.
entity referred to as the "financed entity" in the regulations but as the "borrower" in this article.

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