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theory and practice of conducting large public and private dealings in money. Important institutions of private finance include those that deal with insuranceinsurance
or assurance,
device for indemnifying or guaranteeing an individual against loss. Reimbursement is made from a fund to which many individuals exposed to the same risk have contributed certain specified amounts, called premiums.
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, bankingbanking,
primarily the business of dealing in money and instruments of credit. Banks were traditionally differentiated from other financial institutions by their principal functions of accepting deposits—subject to withdrawal or transfer by check—and of making loans.
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, stocks (see stockstock,
in finance, instrument certifying to shares in the ownership of a corporation. Bonds are similar evidences of shares in a loan to a corporation. Stock yields no dividends until claims of bondholders have been met.
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), bonds, and other securities. With the development of the national state, public finance—the management of the revenues, expenditures, and debts of the state—has been of great political, as well as economic, importance. The most important source of government revenue is taxes, but sale of public properties and franchises, as well as the sale of interest-bearing bonds, also contribute. Since the Korean War, a large part of governmental expenditures has gone for various military and defense needs. Other important areas of governmental expenditure are health, education, and welfare (the Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid programs); interest on the national debt; and public works. Important institutions of international finance are the International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentInternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
(IBRD), independent specialized agency of the United Nations, with headquarters at Washington, D.C.; one of five closely associated development institutions (also including the International Center for Settlement of
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 and the International Monetary FundInternational Monetary Fund
(IMF), specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1945. It was planned at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944), and its headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
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See D. Allen, Finance (1983); D. Swain, Managing Public Money (1987); L. Harris et al., ed., New Perspectives on the Financial System (1988); N. Gianaris, Contemporary Public Finance (1989).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


See also Money.
the Paris stock exchange. [Fr. Commerce: Misc.]
Dow Jones
the best known of several U.S. indexes of movements in price on Wall Street. [Am. Hist.: Payton, 202]
Lombard Street
London bankers’ row; named for 13th-century Italian moneylenders. [Br. Hist.: Plumb, 15]
Old Lady of Threadneedle Street
nickname for the Bank of England. [Br. Culture: Misc.]
goddess of commerce. [Gk. Myth.: Kravitz, 88]
Rockefeller, John
D(avison) (1839–1937) multimillionaire oil tycoon and financier, [Am. Hist.: EB, VIII: 623]
Throgmorton Street
location of Stock Exchange; by extension, financial world. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1079]
Wall Street N.Y.C.
financial district. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 530]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. funds or the provision of funds
2. funds; financial condition
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Islamic real estate financier Amlak Finance on Wednesday said its ongoing renegotiations with financiers on restructuring terms agreed in 2014 and subsequently revised in 2016 are progressing and would be concluded by second quarter 2019.
Efore Oyj (HEL:EFO1V), a developer and producer of demanding power products, announced on Wednesday that it has agreed with its main financier on the reorganisation of its loans, conditional on the implementation of the planned rights offering announced on 21 November 2018.
Minister of Finance Amr El-Garhy approved the decisions of the Egyptian Tax Authority's higher committee for tax remission to drop 150 financiers' dues of EGP 2.117m, according to a statement from the Ministry of Finance on Wednesday.
This one [involves] insiders with accredited suppliers who could be a financier,' Cruz said.
Amlak's restructuring proposal allowed financiers to swap Dh1.3 billion of its original facilities to a convertible Mudaraba instrument.
L e Maroc se positionne en tete du podium dans le continent africain en termes de competitivite, d'attraction des Investissements directs etrangers (IDE) des infrastructures de base et de developpement financier.
Le premier concerne l'institut national de la meteorologie, alors que les deux autres concernent des accords de cooperation financiers avec l'Allemagne et la France.
The only way the 10 residential towers could be completed is by permitting a potential financier to appoint their own construction contractor - but with the provision that construction funds are payable from the financier direct to their contractor, and not diverted via a middleman.
Chauhan and Justice FAI Kalifulla said it was a settled proposition of law that the financier retained the ownership during the subsistence of the hire- purchase agreement.
Release date- 22102012 - Sundance Resources (ASX: SDL) is pleased to announce that Hanlong has secured two Financier Commitment Letters.
e* By accepting the pledge or transfer title, the financier now has beneficial ownership of the underlying assets.
Winick Realty Group senior managing director Darrell Rubens (fight) and Annie Shinn acted as the exclusive leasing agents for Financier. As the brand's exclusive agents for the last three years, Rubens and Shinn brought Financier to First Avenue and 54th Street, as well as 48thStreet and Avenue of the Americas.

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