The natural ingredients, fine aggregate
, and coarse aggregate constitute more than 70% volume of concrete.
 investigated the use of ferronickel slag as a fine aggregate
. It was found that a 50% replacement of natural sand with the ferronickel slag resulted in a well-graded fine aggregate
and maximized strength development.
having 70% of Qilabandi sand and 30% of Chenab sand was introduced in concrete mix designs.
2016), in the work, up to 20% of fine aggregate
was replaced with waste tire rubber crumbs.
Wei Wu et al studied the mechanical properties of high strength concrete incorporating copper slag as a fine aggregate
. When more copper slag is added as a fine aggregate
in concrete splitting tensile strength is decreased.
Moreover depleting sources of sand in Pakistan triggered the dire need of replacement of fine aggregate
of the concrete.
 investigated the effect of using copper slag as a substitute for fine aggregate
For a coarse graded gradation, three aggregate ratios, namely coarse aggregate ratio (CA), fine aggregate
ratio of coarse portion (F[A.sub.c]) and fine aggregate
ratio of the fine portion (F[A.sub.f]), are given to analyze the packing of the combined aggregates.
(100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm), with a standard mix ratio of 1:2:4:0.55 (cement, fine aggregate
: coarse aggregate: water) the first set with the water of pH varying from 1-12 and the second with distilled water which served as control.
This very fine aggregate
gives the best appearance when cured.
The difference in Specific gravity of fine aggregate
and copper slag is considered in the mix design since the copper slag have a higher density than the fine aggregate