To learn about the thermal environment inside a tunnel after thermobaric explosion in detail, a damage evaluation method for thermal radiation of explosion fireball in a tunnel was established based on the Baker fireball model and the heat dose damage criterion; the air temperature distribution inside a tunnel shortly after the explosion was studied by theoretical derivation; taking the calculated distribution as an initial condition, the dynamic thermal environment after the explosion was analyzed in two different cases (open tunnel or blocked tunnel) and in different conditions (TBX mass or initial ground temperature) was numerically analyzed.
Combined with certain fireball models and thermal damage criterion, the damage range of thermal radiation can be evaluated.
The fireball model explain very good long GRBs (but not short GRBs) observational features and their time scales.
Also, according to fireball model, likely, prompt emission of GRBs are generated by the internal shock of shells emitted by a progenitor like massive stars or binary compact systems (neutron star-neutron star or black hole-neutron star)  .
Many models have been introduced in the field of high energy collisions, for example, the hydrodynamics model , the thermodynamics model , the hadron resonance gas model , the fireball model [9,10], and so forth.
The picture of participant-spectator model  is the base of many theoretical models such as the nuclear fireball model , the two-component model , the nuclear overlap model , and the multisource thermal model [29, 30].
Afterglow models of synchrotron emission generated by external shocks in the GRB fireball model
predict emissions that may be detectable in the gamma-ray regime ([??] 25keV).