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Battle,town, East Sussex, SE England. The town grew up on the site (then a moorland) of the battle of HastingsHastings,
city (1991 pop. 74,979) and district, East Sussex, SE England. A resort and residential city, Hastings is backed by cliffs and has a 3-mi (4.8-km) marine esplanade, parks, and bathing beaches. The site was occupied in Roman times.
..... Click the link for more information. (1066). The victorious William the Conqueror built Battle Abbey to commemorate the event. The abbey has been converted into a girls' school, but ruins can be seen.
a clash of masses of troops in combat to achieve large-scale military and political results. In the past (until the 19th century), armies were numerically small in comparison with modern armies, and decisive combat operations took place in limited areas; often the fate, not only of an army, but of a state as well, was decided as a result of one battle. Examples of this include the Battle on the Kalka in 1223, which foreordained the establishment of the Mongol-Tatar yoke in Rus’; the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380, which contributed to the liberation of Rus’ from the Mongol-Tatar invaders; and the Battle of Poltava in 1709, which predetermined the outcome of the Northern War of 1700–21 in favor of Russia.
Today the word “battle” is used as a collective concept to signify a series of engagements and encounters (Battle of the Nations near Leipzig in 1813). The largest military events that have decided the fate of campaigns, sometimes of wars, are called general encounters (Austerlitz, 1805; Jena, 1806; and others). In the mid-19th century the word “operation” came into use. The concepts “battle,” “encounter,” and “operation” began to be used synonymously (for example, the encounter at Sedan and the Sedan operation, 1870; the encounter at Mukden and the Mukden operation, 1905; the encounter at the Marne and the Battle of the Marne, 1914; the Galician encounter and the Battle of Galicia, 1914).
During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) “battle” implied a struggle between large strategic groupings on the most important strategic axes. The deciding forces of these battles were the frontline units (the adversary’s groups of armies). The biggest battles of the Great Patriotic War were the Battle of Moscow, 1941–42; the Battle of Stalingrad, 1942–43; the Battle of Kursk, 1943; the Battle for Leningrad, 1941–14; the Battle for the Caucasus, 1942–43; and the Battle for the Dnieper, 1943. Each of these battles consisted of a series of defensive and offensive operations. The length of the battles varied from one and a half (the Battle of Kursk) to six months (the Battle of Stalingrad) and even to three years (the Battle for Leningrad).
N. G. PAVLENKO
(srazhenie), the aggregate of strikes and combat actions having a common purpose and conducted by units of various sizes in the course of an operation in order to achieve the operation’s objectives or the objectives of a specific stage. A battle may take place on land, in the air, or at sea. Various branches of armed forces and arms or services usually participate in ground battles. Battles may also involve only one branch, as in air or naval battles, or only one arm or service, as in a tank battle. They may be either operational or strategic, depending on the number and type of forces involved and the size of the territory to be taken—whether on land, in the air, or at sea. Operational battles are a series of unit actions; strategic battles are a series of combat actions by operational units. An operation involves several battles of varying durations. A battle may develop over an entire front or in several directions at once, either simultaneously or by stages; it may also be carried great distances from the front. Battles may be defensive or counteroffensive.
Until the 19th century, there was no clear distinction in Russian between the words boi (“combat action”) and srazhenie, and the terms were often used interchangeably. In the 18th and 19th centuries, a distinction was made between decisive (generalnye) and local (chastnye) battles. A decisive battle, which was often referred to as a bitva in Russian, had a decisive effect on the outcome of military campaigns or, occasionally, of wars, for example, at Austerlitz in 1805 and Jena in 1806. In the mid-19th century, the terms boi, bitva, and operatsiia (“operation”) came to be used synonymously in Russian, for example, in describing the battle of Galicia (1914) and the battle of the Marne (1914). In the military historical literature on the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), the term srazhenie is occasionally used to denote an aggregate of operations, as in the battle of Smolensk (1941).
I. S. LIAPUNOV