If the slope is 1 or close to 1 then the intercept needs to be interpreted, where an intercept different from 0 is indicative of fixed bias
. The two components provide readings that differ by a consistent amount across magnitude (fixed bias
) or that differ by a changing amount across magnitude (proportional bias) [15, 16].
Practically, presence of a fixed bias
suggests that the measurements from one administrator would consistently be offset compared with those of the other administrator, whereas proportional bias suggests that measurement differences between administrators are dependent on the magnitude of the measurement (e.g., error is expected to be greater with larger and/or smaller values).
For cholesterol, all assays performed within the 4% fixed bias
limits (Beckman AU was borderline at high concentration), but not within the 2% optimal limit.
Sensor faults, including complete failure, fixed bias
, drifting bias and precision degradation, inevitably occur in long-used air-handling unit.
(In these simulations the trend line passes through the mean of the difference scores, which has an expected value of zero, so there is no so-called fixed bias
.) Whether the bias is substantial is an issue I won't deal with here.
The switch operates using a negative control voltage of 0/-5 V, and requires a fixed bias
of -5 V.
An exact expression has been obtained for the distribution of random walkers after any number of steps with a fixed bias
to persist in the direction of the previous step.
Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a symmetrical distribution of residuals around a fixed bias
of -0.4% (NRA--epiRA).
Principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) are presented in this paper to detect and diagnose the single sensor fault with fixed bias
occurring in variable air volume systems.
Operating from input voltage down to 2.7V, it is suitable for Li-Ion battery powered devices that require a 5V fixed bias
for an ASIC, as well as USB peripherals.
The DC power consumption of a dynamic ET amplifier with impedance compensation is statistically 37 percent that of a fixed bias
, proportional bias, and the imprecision between GEMS and TMAD were compared by using ANOVA.