unmodified, not crenulate on posterior surface; S5 with a row of four spines on midapical margin; small bees (body length 5.7-6.8 mm).
The base of the flagellum
lacks visible anchoring fibres and, instead, sits in a structure resembling a bearing bushing, which might allow rotation in the first place.
1) has revealed several new species of Paradraculoides that could be distinguished from each other and from previously described species by differences in the male flagellum
. Furthermore, we use a multigene approach to help unravel the relationships and status of the various populations and to describe these species using morphological and molecular approaches.
It consists of rapid, alternating downward and upward movements of the aesthetasc-bearing flagellum
, resetting the sensitivity of the fast-adapting chemore-ceptors by continuously exposing them to novel aliquots of the odor-containing fluid.
2E) blackish, sparsely dusted whitish, 1st segment approximately as long as broad, 2nd segment compacted, about l1/2 as broad as long, 3rd segment (flagellum
) relatively long, about 2 as long as the first two segments combined, approximately about 3 X as long as its broadest part, the spine-like arista (spine-like second flagellomere) is not entirely absent, it is fused and bumplike on the apical margin of the segment, 1st and 2nd segments sparsely with some short whitish hairs.
"We show that both a bacterium's body and its flagellum
play an important role in its movement," EPFL scientist Mahmut Selman Sakar - a co-author of the study - said in a (http://actu.epfl.ch/news/new-remote-controlled-microrobots-for-medical-oper/) statement .
Particularly, they presented an internal oval structure resembling the nucleus and some undulations due to the movement of the internalized recurrent flagellum
inside the cells of bovine T.
It has been shown that mutations in the polar flagellum
flaA and flaB genes result in complete loss of motility and adherence to human epithelial HEp-2 cells .
The amplitude of flagellar waves was defined as one-half of the maximum transverse displacement of the flagellum
It is also characterized because female antenna flagellum
has 18-19 segments (male flagellum
with about 24 segments), propodeum mediodorsally with basal keel (Fig.
Plumose setae and aesthetascs are present on the peduncle, and simple setae on the antennular flagellum
were noted, from stage I larvae to adults.
When the robot is subjected to an oscillating field of less than five millitesla - about the strength of a decorative refrigerator magnet - it experiences a magnetic torque on its head, which causes its flagellum
to oscillate and propel it forward.