Flake

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flake

Archaeol
a. a fragment removed by chipping or hammering from a larger stone used as a tool or weapon
b. (as modifier): flake tool
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Flake

 

in archaeology, the name for chips struck from a piece of flint or flint core by human hands. Flakes varied in shape and size. During the Stone and Bronze ages, tools, including knives, were made from flakes.


Flake

 

an internal crack in forged or rolled steel products, and sometimes ingots and cast articles, that markedly detracts from the desired mechanical properties of the steel. In pickled micro-sections, flakes are identified as hairline cracks; in the fracture testing of hardened specimens, flakes are oval, crystalline spots of a silvery white color distinguishable from the primary gray mass of the fracture. The steels most susceptible to flake damage are alloyed and carbon martensitic and pearlitic steels used for structural members, bearings, armor, and rails. Defects of this type are not found in austenitic or carbide steels (stainless and high-speed steels).

The principal cause of the formation of flakes is the presence of excessive hydrogen, and the mechanism most likely responsible is adsorption of hydrogen on the surfaces of microscopic irregularities, which reduces surface energy and makes destruction easier. Flakes originate in zones with heightened adsorption of hydrogen. The formation of such zones stimulates internal tensile stresses that arise in the steel during structural transformations, plastic deformation, and uneven cooling. Flake development is also promoted by a reduction in the metal’s resistance to destruction in places where stresses have concentrated near accumulations of defects of the crystal lattice, as well as by concentrations of nonmetallic inclusions and segregated inhomogeneities. Flakes may be controlled by thermal treatment of the parts under special conditions and by subjecting the molten steel to a vacuum, which reduces the hydrogen content to a safe level.

REFERENCES

Dubovoi, V. la. Flokeny v stali. Moscow, 1950.
Moroz, L. S., and B. B. Chechulin. Vodorodnaia khrupkost’ metallov. Moscow, 1967.

V. L. SAFONOV and M. L. BERNSHTEIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

flake

[flāk]
(materials)
Dry, unplasticized, cellulosic plastics base.
Plastic chip used as feed in molding operations.
A small, flat wood particle of predetermined dimensions and uniform thickness, with fiber direction essentially in the plane of the flake.
(metallurgy)
Discontinuous, internal cracks formed in steel during cooling due usually to the release of hydrogen. Also known as fisheye; shattercrack; snowflake.
Fish-scale, flat particles in powder metallurgy. Also known as flake powder.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ice flakers are highly moldable, have a large surface area, and no hard edges.
Other capital expenditures of Rs2.7 billion were also given go-ahead which would be funded through a mix of internal cash and debt, which includes 'new product line by adding Caustic Flaker of 20,000 MT per annum.
The blaze in June 2011 left the plant badly damaged and in need of a new multi-million pound flaker hall.
Wood flakes with a target thickness of 0.05 cm were chopped from water-soaked pine wood blocks with a disk flaker and conditioned to equilibrium moisture content of approximately 10 percent in an environmental chamber at 20[degrees]C [+ or -] 3[degrees]C and 65 [+ or -] 5 percent relative humidity.
Blend until homogenous and run through a roll flaker with cooling water.
"Instead of a 1,000 pound or 2,000 pound flaker, we're seeing a shift to a few of the 800 pound units, but mostly to the 400 pound to 500 pound range."
In a move which has caused an increasingly bitter feud between Knowsley council and Sonae, the firm started building a new flaker hall to replace the one lost in the fire before applying for retrospective planning permission.
The raw material was chipped in a pulpwood chipper with knives set for 15-mm chip length and then flaked with a ring flaker. The particles were dried to about 3 to 4 percent moisture content.
Modular construction and functionality allow these machines to be optimally matched to a customer's specific needs, and its small footprint and variable drive configuration enable such a flaker to be installed in any plant.
But when retrospective planning consent was granted last month for a replacement multi-million pound flaker hall, after one was lost in a huge fire, employees were given hope their jobs would be saved.
First, the geometry or configuration of the particles obtained in this trial was smaller or lower in quality than that produced by other researchers because these particles were produced using a hammer mill available in our laboratory (Table 2), whereas others had used a laboratory ring flaker, which can produce particles of high quality.