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see motion picturesmotion pictures,
movie-making as an art and an industry, including its production techniques, its creative artists, and the distribution and exhibition of its products (see also motion picture photography; Motion Picture Cameras under camera).
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a series of sequential photographic images, or frames, associated with a single subject and intended for reproduction on a screen.

In modern cinematography, the following classifications of films are used: feature motion pictures, television films, animated cartoons, newsreel and documentary films, scientific films, educational films, and amateur films. Other classifications correspond to thematic content (historical and adventure films and comedies), cinematographic and projection techniques (silent, sound, black-and-white, color, wide-screen, large-format, panoramic, stereoscopic, and multiscreen films), and projection duration (full-length and short films). Special-purpose films include microfilms, test films, advertising films, and souvenir films.

Most films are produced at specialized motion-picture studios by groups of artistic workers and technical specialists, who use a variety of cinematographic equipment while filming on the studio sets and on location. Films for scientific, technical, and educational purposes are often produced in the motion-picture laboratories of research institutes and educational institutions. Amateur films are usually made in amateur motion-picture studios at clubs, educational institutions, and enterprises, as well as by individual amateurs.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about a film?

One way of examining parts of ourselves we do not wish to look at is to dream that we are seeing them portrayed in a film. Alternatively, it can mean escaping reality.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.


A thin, membranous skin, such as a pellicle.
The layer adjacent to the valve metal in an electrochemical valve, in which is located the high voltage drop when current flows in the direction of high impedance.
(graphic arts)
Plastic material, such as cellulose acetate or cellulose nitrate, coated with a light-sensitive emulsion, used to make negatives or transparencies in radiography or photography.
A flat section of material that is extremely thin in comparison to its other dimensions and has a nominal maximum thickness of 250 micrometers and a lower limit of thickness of about 25 micrometers. Also known as self-supported film.
A pathological opacity, as of the cornea.
Oxide coating on a metal.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A layer of one or more coats of paint or varnish covering an object or surface.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a. a sequence of images of moving objects photographed by a camera and providing the optical illusion of continuous movement when projected onto a screen
b. a form of entertainment, information, etc., composed of such a sequence of images and shown in a cinema, etc.
c. (as modifier): film techniques
2. a thin flexible strip of cellulose coated with a photographic emulsion, used to make negatives and transparencies
3. Pathol an abnormally opaque tissue, such as the cornea in some eye diseases
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


Film is an analog method for recording still photos and moving images. Following Daguerreotype photography (see image), still image film was invented by George Eastman in 1885, who founded Eastman Kodak Company three years later.

Film is a strip of plastic coated with an emulsion of light-sensitive silver halide crystals. In monochrome film, the crystals absorb the light. In the development process, they become silver and block the light to become the black areas on the negative. Color film has layers of color sensitive dyes starting on top: blue; yellow to prevent blue leakage; green-blue and red-blue. In development, the color dyes are retained and combine to form the colored image.

Still Filming in the 21st Century
Some Hollywood movies are still shot on film; however, the term "filming" is occasionally used to mean shooting a digital video or movie. See film camera.

Roundhay Garden Scene (1888)
Not long after Eastman's invention, French inventor Louis Le Prince made a two-second silent "moving picture," considered to be the oldest surviving movie film.

In the Antique Shop
Kodak film, which is still being made, may some day be history. Years ago, signs such as this were everywhere, but this one was for sale in an antique shop.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Flatcad is a control volume package used for design of flat film (coathanger) dies.
The OxyPerm Permeation/OTR System traditionally included the ability to test flat films using its economical yet accurate and reliable OxySense 5250i oxygen analyzer and low cost, easily scalable, patented permeation chambers.
[T.sub.t] (%) [T.sub.d] (%) Haze (%) PET Flat film 89.6 1.4 1.6 0ne-sided microstructure (20 98.2 86.1 88.3 [mu]m) One-sided microstructure (150 97.1 94.5 86.9 [mu]m) Two-sided microstructure (20 98.4 89.3 89.7 [mu]m/150 [mu]m) Two-sided microstructure 98.1 88.2 88.9 (150 [micro]m/150 [micro]m) PC Flat film 90.2 0 0.2 One-sided microstructure (150 98.5 85.7 86 [micro]m) Two-sided microstructure (150 99.8 90.2 90.5 [micro]m/150 [micro]m) [T.sub.t], the total transmittance: [T.sub.d] diffuse transmittance.
This could be explained by the huge difference of actual surface between all of the textile structures under study and a flat film (same projected surface for both, but greater actual surface for the textiles over the films).
Blanchett, being the fine actress that she is, makes something out of not very much in this rather thin and flat film version of Sebastian Faulks' best-selling novel.
It's a curiously flat film, despite having such a melodramatic story - the domineering father, the demands of single-parenthood, a repressive society, and a tender soul trapped in a life that's crushing her spirit.
Then, after the film warmed back up, the nanoclusters rearranged into a flat film with a critical thickness of 1.5 nanometers.
It starts as a flat film, and through a series of folds and the strategic positioning of stiffening elements, it is transformed into a brick-shaped can which Fres-Co considers ideally suited to coffee.
Three types of laminated films, i.e., unannealed curved film (UCF), annealed flat film (AFF), and annealed curved film (ACF), were used to understand effects of annealing on therrnoviscoelastic deformation of the pristine laminated film.
KG, Siegsdorf, today is the globally leading supplier of production lines for the manufacture of high-quality mono- and biaxially stretched film as well as extruded and smoothed flat film. Bruckner Maschinenbau also provides complete turnkey plants as well as laboratory and pilot plants.
For that purpose a fine filtration is required, which has been recently delivered by Kreyenborg as a tandem configuration for the PET flat film line of a Japanese producer of food grade packaging.