Although the vacuum tube collectors have higher solar collector efficiency, most of the research has been conducted to lower the heat source temperature requirements so that a cheaper flat-plate collector
can be utilized.
There are mainly three types of solar collectors that are used in residential applications such as flat-plate collector
, evacuated tube collector, and unglazed water collector.
These results again show that the wind speed contributed to the thermal losses of the flat-plate collector
. Increased wind speed resulted in lower heat gain, hence lower mass flow rate.
Optimization of Tank and Flat-plate Collector
of Solar Water Heating System for Single-Family Households to Assure Economic Efficiency through the TRNSYS Program, Renewable Energy, 31(10): 1581-1595.
Wu, "A Numerical study on heat transfer of high efficient solar flat-plate collectors
with energy storage," International Journal of Green Energy, vol.
Technically, all three types of collectors can provide this driving temperature, but flat-plate collectors
were chosen for the adsorption system because they are relatively cheaper.
This phenomenon of drop in temperature at the chimney unit could be explained by the high thermal heat losses associated with bare flat-plate collectors
Compared to conventional flat-plate collectors
, GSA's field tests found that the honeycomb technology delivered higher instant efficiency than all of the other systems in configurations where higher fluid temperatures are needed but tended to underperform when the needed fluid temperature is lower (i.e.
use an absorber plate--usually copper painted black--to heat a series of pipes, which contain the solar-transfer fluid.
The Power & Financial Model estimator takes into consideration building geographic location, solar radiation for flat-plate collectors
(SolarWindow irradiance is derated to account for 360 degree building orientation and vertical installation), climate zone energy use and generalized skyscraper building characteristics when estimating PV power and energy production, and carbon dioxide equivalents.
The system consists of 232 Viessmann solar flat-plate collectors
, two Vitoplex gas-fired hot water boilers, five 5000 litre stainless steel domestic hot water storage tanks, and five Vitotrans 222 heat exchangers, all of which combine to provide hot water for the 363 bedrooms and restaurant kitchens in the resort.
Glazed flat-plate collectors
are insulated, weatherproofed boxes that contain a dark absorber plate under one or more glass or polymer covers.