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Related to flattening: flattening test


See oblateness.



a means of producing thin metal strip, with a width-to-thickness ratio not exceeding 15, mainly by cold rolling gauged round wire in smooth rollers. Multistand continuous rolling mills and single-stand two-roller and multiple-roller mills with rollers 5–250 mm in diameter, made from very hard steels, are used for the flattening of metals. On a smaller industrial scale, ultrasonic forging devices are also used.

The main advantage of flattened strip (thickness, 0.005–1 mm; width, 0.05–15 mm) over strip produced by longitudinal cutting of cold-rolled bands is the roundness of the edges, which significantly improves the performance characteristics of items. In addition, in flattened strip the dimesional precision is higher and the surface quality is better. Such strip is used in manufacturing precision springs (including watch springs), electrical resistors, elastic elements of high-frequency oscillographic galvanometers, and special sewing needles.


Prokatnoe proizvodstvo: Spravochnik, fasc. 1. Moscow, 1962.


The ratio of the difference between the equatorial and polar radii of the earth; the flattening of the earth is the ellipticity of the spheroid; the magnitude of the flattening is sometimes expressed as the numerical value of the reciprocal of the flattening. Also known as compression.
Straightening of metal sheet by passing it through special rollers which flatten it without changing its thickness. Also known as roll flattening.


The ratio of the difference between the equatorial radius (major semi-axis) and the polar radius (minor semi-axis) of the earth to the equatorial radius. Also called compression. The flattening of the earth is the ellipticity of the spheroid, and it equals the ellipticity of the ellipse forming a meridianal section of the spheroid. If a and b represent the major and minor semi-axes of the spheroid, respectively, and f is the flattening of the earth, f= (a – b)/a. The magnitude of the flattening is sometimes expressed by stating the numerical value of the reciprocal of the flattening, a/(a – b).

flatten layers

To bring all levels of a multi-layered image down to one plane. High-end graphics programs provide a multi-layer file format, such as the Photoshop Document (PSD), which enables elements in each layer to be manipulated independently. In order to save the layered image in a single-layer graphics format such as TIFF or JPEG, the image is said to be "flattened".

An Adobe PDF file is also flattened to remove a transparency layer when the document is rendered in a printer or in an application that does not support the additional layer. See layers and PSD.
References in periodicals archive ?
Our paper is related to Kambourov and Manovskii (2009), Guvenen and Kuruscu (2010), Hendricks (2015), and Jeong, Kim, and Manovskii (2015), who also document the flattening of earnings profiles of successive cohorts of workers.
[4], the dose calculations were reported to be equivalent due to the production of neutrons in targets and flattening filters of the linear accelerators.
However, the effect of radial pressure on root growth impact still largely depends upon qualitative and arbitrary descriptions, such as root invaginations (Kolb et al., 2012; Lipiec et al., 2012) and flattening (White and Kirkegaard, 2010).
Angle based flattening (ABF) is a method of mapping that preserves similarity of triangles of a given mesh to corresponding triangles of flattened mesh (Sheffer, Sturler 2001).
The degree of flattening was measured from the horizontal length and vertical length of an egg.
After all, the Bernanke Federal Reserve recently instituted "Operation Twist," which in effect has the Fed artificially driving down long-term rates, flattening the yield curve.
Woodworkers all have their own system for flattening wood, some of which are pretty complex.
"Stomach Flattening Training Manual" is Doug Setter's guide to putting one's body through the lifestyle change it needs to change its life for the better.
According to the company, machine-ready blanks allow production to start immediately, with blanks loading into the machine without prep operations such as sawing, grinding, flattening, or squaring.
As the England/Scotland boundary proceeds south to north at approximately 045deg there should be no flattening of the line until it meets Norwegian waters.
Mum Moira said: "We first noticed the back of Tom's head flattening when he was four weeks old.
Under the program, automobile dismantlers will remove mercury-containing light switches from scrap vehicles prior to flattening the vehicles.