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a means of producing thin metal strip, with a width-to-thickness ratio not exceeding 15, mainly by cold rolling gauged round wire in smooth rollers. Multistand continuous rolling mills and single-stand two-roller and multiple-roller mills with rollers 5–250 mm in diameter, made from very hard steels, are used for the flattening of metals. On a smaller industrial scale, ultrasonic forging devices are also used.
The main advantage of flattened strip (thickness, 0.005–1 mm; width, 0.05–15 mm) over strip produced by longitudinal cutting of cold-rolled bands is the roundness of the edges, which significantly improves the performance characteristics of items. In addition, in flattened strip the dimesional precision is higher and the surface quality is better. Such strip is used in manufacturing precision springs (including watch springs), electrical resistors, elastic elements of high-frequency oscillographic galvanometers, and special sewing needles.
REFERENCEProkatnoe proizvodstvo: Spravochnik, fasc. 1. Moscow, 1962.
flatten layersTo bring all levels of a multi-layered image down to one plane. High-end graphics programs provide a multi-layer file format, such as the Photoshop Document (PSD), which enables elements in each layer to be manipulated independently. In order to save the layered image in a single-layer graphics format such as TIFF or JPEG, the image is said to be "flattened."
An Adobe PDF file is also flattened to remove a transparency layer when the document is rendered in a printer or in an application that does not support the additional layer. See layers and PSD.