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finely ground, usually sifted, meal of graingrain,
in agriculture, term referring to the caryopsis, or dry fruit, of a cereal grass. The term is also applied to the seedlike fruits of buckwheat and of certain other plants and is used collectively for any plant that bears such fruits.
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, such as wheat, rye, corn, rice, or buckwheat. Flour is also made from potatoes, peas, beans, peanuts, etc. Usually it refers to the finely ground and bolted (i.e., sifted through a fine sieve) flour of wheatwheat,
cereal plant of the genus Triticum of the family Poaceae (grass family), a major food and an important commodity on the world grain market. Wheat Varieties and Their Uses
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, which forms the largest proportion of all flour milled in the United States, Canada, and W Europe. Milletmillet,
common name for several species of grasses cultivated mainly for cereals in the Eastern Hemisphere and for forage and hay in North America. The principal varieties are the foxtail, pearl, and barnyard millets and the proso millet, called also broomcorn millet and hog
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 is ground in India, Russia, and China. Rye is much used for bread in N Europe, buckwheat in the Netherlands and Russia, and corn in the United States. Rice may be used for bread in combination with other grains richer in glutengluten,
mixture of proteins present in the cereal grains. The long molecules of gluten, insoluble in water, are strong and flexible and form many cross linkages. This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within
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. Wheat and rye flour can be used in baking leavened bread, as they contain gluten in sufficient amount to retain the gas formed by the action of yeast. Corn flour, rich in fats and starches, is a favorite for making quick breads. Graham, or whole-wheat, flour contains the whole grain, unbolted. This flour will not keep long, as the germ contains fats and ferments that cause deterioration when exposed to the air. Wheat flour is separated into grades by milling. In the United States, patent flour, freed of the bran and most of the germ, is the highest grade; clear flour is the second grade; and red dog, a low-grade residue, is used mainly for animal feed. The composition of flour depends on the type of wheat and the milling processes; gluten is the chief protein, and starch the principal carbohydrate, although some sucrose, invert sugar, and dextrin may be present. On the market are prepared flours, such as the self-rising, which contains a leavening agent, and numerous cake, pancake, and pastry mixes requiring only the addition of water. Flour improves if stored from six to nine months under conditions permitting the enzyme action that gives better baking qualities. Good flour, rich in gluten, has a creamy color and adhesive quality. Bleaching, which is accomplished by the addition of chemicals to flour to improve its appearance and baking qualities, was begun about 1900. The bleaching of flour has been a controversial issue since its beginning, with charges that it destroys valuable nutrients or is injurious to health; some bleaching agents have been banned (e.g., nitrogen trichloride), but new ones have been introduced. Bleached flours must be so labeled.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a food product obtained by grinding the grain of various crops. Most often flour is made from wheat, but it may also be made from rye, barley, corn, oats, sorghum, buckwheat, soybeans, and peas. Flour is used for making bread and other baked goods, pastry, pasta products, and mixed feeds. In addition, it is mixed with other feeds and given to livestock.

The chemical composition, the nutritional value, and the technical qualities of flour depend on the type and quality of the grain, the particular type of milling, the yield (the percentage of flour in the total grain weight), and the grade of flour (see Table 1).

Table 1. Chemical composition of wheat flour (in percentage of dry weight)
Whole wheat..........1469.611.
Patent flour ..........1473.610.
First Clear ...........1472.911.

Whole wheat and low-grade flour contain vitamins B1, B2, PP, and E, while patent flour and first clear have virtually no vitamins. Flour also contains various enzymes (proteinase, beta-amylase, alpha-amylase, catalase, lipase), which greatly affect the process of bread-making and the quality of the bread. Rye flour is most often produced as a one-grade, or straight-grade, flour. Also produced are a straight-grade 96 percent wheat-rye flour (70 percent wheat and 30 percent rye) and a straight-grade 95 percent rye-wheat flour (60 percent rye and 40 percent wheat). The yield and the grade determine the flour’s color, particle size, and ash content; in wheat flour, they also determine the quality and quantity of the crude gluten. Good-quality flour has a slight floury aroma and a fresh taste.

When flour is stored, its quality can alter. During the first storage period (up to one month) and under conditions of increased temperature (20°-30°C), maturing occurs (an improvement in baking properties) as a result of fat hydrolysis and oxidation processes. With protracted storage, the quality of the flour deteriorates. The moisture content of flour should be no higher than 15 percent. Flour with higher moisture content turns sour, becomes moldy, and may self-heat; flour with lower moisture content (9–13 percent) rapidly turns bitter.

Flour must not be contaminated with granary pests. It should contain no more than 3 percent sprouted seed and 0.05 percent harmful impurities. Metal impurities (up to 3 mg/kg of flour) are permitted only in the form of round dustlike particles. The color, ash content, and particle size of the flour are also control indicators for the production process and for the correct extraction of the various grain parts. To obtain high-quality products, wheat flour, depending on its grade and yield, should contan at least 20–30 percent crude gluten of the first or second group. To determine the technical qualities of wheat flour, the elasticity of the dough during kneading and rising is recorded. The qualities of rye flour are determined on an amylograph, which indicates the viscosity of the flour paste and, thereby, the amylolytic activity of the flour and the degree of starch hydrolysis. The baking properties of a particular flour may be determined from experimental bakes using the same recipe. (See.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(food engineering)
A powdery meal obtained by milling wheat and other cereal grains or dry food products such as potato or banana.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
(Single and multiple mutants of maize offer the most extensive and varying range of these polymer-containing starches.) Besides the genes already described--amylose extender, dull, floury, sugary, waxy, and horny-- others important to this concept include brittle, opaque, shrunken, and white.
Floury potatoes, on the other hand, are starchier, with a fluffy texture when cooked.
Italian Cottage Pie SERVES: 4 COOKING TIME: 40 MINS PREPARATION TIME: 10 MINS INGREDIENTS Kerrygold Block Butter for frying 750g(1lb, 10oz) stewing beef cut into chunks 1 heaped tbsp flour 8 shallots - peeled 400g (12oz) baby carrots - scrubbed clean 2 leeks - cut into large chunks and washed 2 cloves garlic - crushed 100g (4oz) pancetta or streaky bacon, cut into strips 1/2 glass of red wine 425ml (1 pint) beef stock 2 bay leaves 2 oregano sprigs, leaves stripped or 2 tsp dried oregano 700g (1 1/2 lb) floury potatoes, sliced 25g (1oz) butter 50g (2oz) grated parmesan METHOD BEEF STEW 1.
INGREDIENTS 600g floury potatoes, diced 1tbsp oil or 15g dripping or butter 1 large onion, chopped 400g corned beef, chopped (homemade ideally, but you can also use canned) 1tbsp tomato ketchup 1tsp Dijon mustard A dash of Worcestershire sauce 2tbsp finely chopped parsley Flaked sea salt Freshly ground black pepper Fried eggs, for serving (optional) METHOD PUT the potatoes in a saucepan and add water to cover them.
With Great British Bake Off fever currently holding the country in its floury grip, the museum is hoping people can stir themselves from the sofa to start whisking up their own cakes and biscuits based on the Anglo-Saxon treasures.
1kg floury potatoes, such as Maris Piper, peeled and cut to the size you like Low-calorie cooking spray 2 tsp garlic salt (optional) Small handful of finely chopped fresh thyme leaves 1 Preheat the oven to 220degC/Fan 200degC/Gas 7 and line a roasting tin with non-stick baking parchment.
READY IN 45 MINUTES SERVES 4 600g floury potatoes, such as Desiree or King Edward, peeled and cut into fries low calorie cooking spray sea salt and freshly ground black pepper 2 garlic cloves, halved 4 sirloin steaks, all visible fat removed For the mustard sauce 300ml beef stock 1 tsp mixed peppercorns, crushed 2 tsp English mustard powder, mixed with 1 tbsp water 100g fat-free natural fromage frais For the salad 2 Little Gem lettuces, leaves separated 1/2 cucumber, halved and sliced 200g baby plum tomatoes, halved 410g can baby sweetcorn, drained juice of 1 lemon 1 Preheat your oven to 200degC/fan 180degC/ gas 6.
READY IN 40 MINUTES SERVES 4 1kg floury potatoes, such as King Edward or Maris Piper, peeled and cut into chips low calorie cooking spray 4 thick skinless cod or haddock fillets salt and freshly ground black pepper 2 eggs, separated canned mushy peas, to serve 4 level tbsp tomato ketchup, to serve lemon wedges, to serve 1 Preheat the oven to 200degC/fan 180degC/ Gas 6.
SERVES: 4, TAKES: 35 mins 600g/1lb 5oz floury potatoes, unpeeled, cut into chunks 140g/5oz frozen peas 21/2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil Juice and zest of 1/2 lemon 1 tbsp capers, roughly chopped 2 tbsp snipped chives 4 haddock or other chunky white fish fillets, about 120g/41/2oz each 2 tbsp seasoned plain flour Steamed broccoli, to serve
Al Maamari also received Floury Medal presented by International Federation of Inventors' Associations (IFIA) for his environment friendly invention.
I picked up this recipe on holiday in Turkey 500g Cyprus potatoes (you can get these in Greek or Middle Eastern shops or simply use any floury potatoes) 160ml good-quality olive oil Juice of a small lemon 3 garlic cloves, minced 1 large perfectly ripe avocado Salt 1 Scrub the potatoes, then put them whole and unpeeled in salted water before bringing them to the boil.