Features include: the ability to import asset details from shape files, personal geodatabases or enterprise geodatabases; import visual layers, including raster files; fill survey header fields by selecting an asset from displayed maps; automatically highlight surveyed pipes to get a visual of completed surveys in an area; numerous import and export options to enable the user to perform an endless variety of analysis and generate reports/lists; build a pipe flow layer
to find the upstream manhole quickly; select groups of assets to create survey projects.
A new expression for the thickness of laminar flow layer may be developed from this study.
L] = Laminar flow layer thickness as fraction of outer pipe radius, fraction J = Integral defined by Eq.
However, it appears that the central flow velocity is higher when no die is fitted, this being assessed by examining the displacement of the central flow layer.
In addition, it was also observed that as extrusion proceeded, owing to the folding effect generated by the flow across the face of the piston, the number of the flow layers moving into the capillary increased, the thickness of the individual flow layers becoming thinner, except for the central flow, owing to the relatively high velocity of the flow at the barrel centre.
Although, the flow patterns in the barrel were similar, it can be seen that, by consideration of the central flow layer, the sample from die number 1 exhibited the fastest flow at the center whereas the sample from die number 6 exhibited the slowest.
The volumes of the flow layers in the barrel were determined by measuring directly the XY coordinates of the inner and outer surfaces of the individual layers from the specimens produced in the rheometer.
r] = d(V(z))/dz d is relative velocity of flow layers
These streamlines will never cross, meaning that there is no interchange of fluid elements among the outer and inner recirculating flow layers