Caption: Figure 4: fs-TA data analysis of the pristine polymer films at low laser fluences
(a, c) and at high laser fluences
Aliquots (20 mL, n = 5, for each fluence
, power and emission mode) of bacterial suspensions (108 cells/mL) were exposed, at room temperature and under white light (fluorescent lamps), to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light (0.00785 [cm.sup.2] beam diameter) at various fluences
(25, 50, and 100 J/[cm.sup.2], corresponding to 0.7, 1.5, and 2.8 J, respectively), and powers (30, 50, and 100 mW) in continuous wave and pulsed emission modes (10, 30, and 100 pulses/s).
However, relatively low laser fluence
but large number of shots is the most commonly used situation for fused silica optics.
Generation of Holes Depended on Laser Fluence
. Figure 2 shows SEM images of craters ablated by picosecond laser with fluences
F = 0.8 and 1.6 J/[cm.sup.2] and the pulse number N = 500.
Additionally, due to the contribution of the polymer with high absorption coefficient, lower laser fluences
comparable to that of pure PS are necessary for the local and periodic ablation process.
The effect of the fluences
on the water contact angle and water permeability was tested and the results are shown in Figure 2.
Eleven were infants treated with 585-nm pulsed dye laser without a dynamic cooling device, using fluences
of 4.7-7 J/[cm.sup.2].
Because of their slowly-decaying tails, FREDs appear to be particularly susceptible to the Fluence-Duration Bias (Hakkila et al., Astrophysical Journal 538, 165, 2000), which is a process by which faint bursts have their fluences
(time-integrated flux) and durations systematically underestimated.
coli AB1886 at the highest fluences
used (50 and 100 mJ/[cm.sup.2]).
After absorption of laser radiation energy at low fluences
by such photoacceptors, transduction processes are responsible for activating intracellular signaling pathways, thereby amplifying the primary photosignal (4).