challenge

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challenge

1. US an assertion that a person is not entitled to vote or that a vote is invalid
2. Law a formal objection to a person selected to serve on a jury (challenge to the polls) or to the whole body of jurors (challenge to the array)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

challenge

[′chal·ənj]
(communications)
To cause an interrogator to transmit a signal which puts a transponder into operation.
(immunology)
Administration of an antigen to ascertain state of immunity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound of the hepatic vein was used to assess HVF to identify systemic hemodynamic changes during fluid challenge and passive leg raising (PLR).
The mVLT fluid protocol implies hemodilution guided mini fluid challenges. These are 2.5 ml [kg.sup.-1]-5 ml [kg.sup.-1] boluses infused over 2 min-5 min, each followed by a 5 min period with no fluids.
The nurse indicated that the patient was not at high risk for pre-term labor and instructed the patient to compete a "fluid challenge." The nurse instructed the patient to empty her bladder, consume 32 ounces of water, rest on her left side, count any contractions, then call the nurse in one hour.
A previous study found that changes in RI (measured by ultrasound) during fluid challenge were associated with increased urine volume and appeared earlier than changes in urine volume.[sup][30] In contrast, another study showed that there was no correlation between RI and stroke volume before and after the fluid challenge in sepsis patients.[sup][31] A study by Zhang et al.
More specifically, the stepwise fluid loading has to be stopped when invasively and noninvasively measured capillary plasma dilution efficacy of a fluid challenge is minimized and arteriocapillary plasma dilution efficacy difference becomes negative [6].
Eligibility was determined by the clinical decision to undertake intravenous fluid challenge in a patient with septic shock, defined according to the International Sepsis Definitions Conference (8).
It requires measurement of haemoglobin concentration (Hb) before and after each fluid challenge. The method defines hemodilution non-responsiveness as a sign of imminent edema.
As fluid challenge can result in clinical deterioration, the ability to predict haemodynamic response is desirable In this way it might be possible to avoid unnecessary volume replacement in critically ill patients
Fluid challenge is a common diagnostic method to help the physician determine fluid responsiveness, which is an important component of fluid management in critically ill patients.[sup][1] Raising legs of a patient induces the transfer of a variable amount of blood (approximately 200–300 ml) contained in the venous reservoir from the limb to central venous compartment.