(0.128 [+ or -] 0.053 [micro]g [L.sub.-1]) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) (0.006 [+ or -] 0.001 [micro]g [L.sub.-1]) were detected only during the rest period.
Unlike these fluoranthene
and B (a) P are rarely found in samples.
Mangrove hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria: isolation and identification.--Microbial growth using a pyrene, fluoranthene
and phenanthrene as carbon source allowed to isolate 10 colonies capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons.
Naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluorine, anthracene, fluoranthene
, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were detected and ranged between 0.05 [micro]g/l and 0.71 [micro]g/l.
Such enrichment was unclear for >[C.sub.12] n-alkanes; [C.sub.10], [C.sub.11], [C.sub.13] n-FAs; BTEXs; naphthalene, acenaphthene, and fluoranthene
because of their very low concentration and/or the measurement uncertainty.
The maximum admissible concentration of naphthalene (1200 ng*[L.sup.-1]), anthracene (100 ng*[L.sup.-1]), fluoranthene
(100 ng*[L.sup.-1]), and benzo[a]pyrene (100 ng*[L.sup.-1]) for superficial water was restricted by the European Union [2, 3].
Several compounds, including crude oil, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene
, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene (Da Silva, Umbuzeiro, Pfenning, Canhos, & Esposito, 2003; Argumedo-Delira, Alarcon, Ferreira-Cerrato, Almaraz, & Pena Cabriales, 2012; Lee et al., 2014; Zafra, Absalon, Cuevas, & Cortes-Espinosa, 2014), triazine herbicides (Colla, Primaz, Lima, Bertolini, & Costa, 2008) and heavy metals (Vale, Abreu, Gouveia, Leitao, & Santaella, 2011), has been used in these types of tests.
Individual PAH that showed the highest concentrations are phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene
(FLT), acenaphthylene (ACY), and pyrene (PYR).
A certified solution of 16 standard polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene; acenaphthylene; acenaphthene; fluorene; phenanthrene; anthracene; fluoranthene
; pyrene; benz[a]anthracene; chrysene; benzo[k] fluoranthene
; benzo[b]fluoranthene; benzo[a]pyrene; indeno[1, 2,3-cd]pyrene; dibenz[a,h]anthracene; and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) with 10 mg/L concentration of each compound was purchased from Supelco, Milan, Italy.
Zhang et al., "Bacteria capable of degrading anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene
as revealed by DNA based stable-isotope probing in a forest soil," Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.
Species Concentration, vol.% Nitrogen 7.3x[10.sup.1] Water 1.2x[10.sup.1] Formaldehyde 7.6x[10.sup.3] Oxygen 1.3 Carbon dioxide 1.3x[10.sup.1] Carbon monoxide 5.0x[10.sup.1] Nitric oxide 3.0x[10.sup.2] Acetaldehyde 1.2x[10.sup.3] Acetone 5.4x[10.sup.4] Propionaldehyde 9.0x[10.sup.5] Benzene 1.8x[10.sup.-2] Toluene l.lx[10.sup.-3] Phenol 3.1x[10.sup.-4] Styrene 3.1x[10.sup.-4] Ethylbenzene 9.7x[10.sup.-5] O-cresol 6.4x[10.sup.-6] Indene 2.1x[10.sup.-4] Naphthalene 8.4x[10.sup.-4] Acenaphthylene 2.0x[10.sup.-4] Acenaphthene 1.6x[10.sup.-5] Fluorene 1.4x[10.sup.-5] Phenanthrene 1.7x[10.sup.-5] Anthracene 2.8x[10.sup.-6] Fluoranthene
3.1X[10.sup.-6] Pyrene 2.7x[10.sup.-6]