fluoride


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fluoride,

a salt of hydrofluoric acid; see hydrogen fluoridehydrogen fluoride,
chemical compound, HF, a colorless, fuming liquid or colorless gas that boils at 19.54°C;. It is miscible with water and is soluble in benzene, toluene, and concentrated sulfuric acid.
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. See also fluoridationfluoridation
, process of adding a fluoride to the water supply of a community to preserve the teeth of the inhabitants. Tooth enamel ordinarily contains small amounts of fluorides and when the amount is augmented through the intake of fluoridated water, especially during the
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; fluorinefluorine
, gaseous chemical element; symbol F; at. no. 9; at. wt. 18.9984; m.p. −219.6°C;; b.p. −188.14°C;; density 1.696 grams per liter at STP; valence −1. Fluorine is a yellowish, poisonous, highly corrosive gas.
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.

Fluoride

 

a compound of fluorine with other elements. The fluorides of elements in Groups I and II of Mendeleev’s periodic system are solids with an ionic element—fluorine bond; the fluorides of most elements in Groups VI–VII are gases with a covalent element—fluorine bond. Compounds containing a C—F bond form numerous classes of fluorocarbons; the higher fluorides of many metals, such as U, V, Mo, W, and Re, are volatile substances. Fluorides occur in nature as constituents of minerals. In terms of chemical properties, the fluorides of halogens, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, and many other elements in higher oxidation states (for example, PtF5, CoF3, and AgF2) are oxidizing agents; the fluorides of arsenic, antimony, and boron are strong Lewis acids (seeACIDS AND BASES).

Fluorides can be obtained by the interaction of fluorine with elements, by the action of hydrogen fluoride on metals, and by other methods.

Hydrogen fluoride, oxyfluorides, and nitrogen fluorine compounds are widely used. The chlorine fluorides C1F3 and C1F5 are rocket-fuel oxidizing agents; C1F3 also serves as a fluorinating agent in the preparation of uranium hexafluoride, UF6, which is used in the atomic industry for the isotope separation of uranium. The volatile fluorides of metals are used in the application of metallic coatings. The fluorides of lithium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and other metals are used as raw materials in the manufacture of optical glass. (See alsoCRYOLITE.)

REFERENCES

See references under .

A. V. PANKRATOV

fluoride

[′flu̇r‚īd]
(inorganic chemistry)
A salt of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state.

fluoride

1. any salt of hydrofluoric acid, containing the fluoride ion, F--
2. any compound containing fluorine, such as methyl fluoride
References in periodicals archive ?
Fluoride-containing dentifrices have been in common usage since the 1960s when it was shown that dentifrices containing sodium fluoride (NaF), disodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), stannous fluoride (SnF2), acidulated phosphate fluoride, or amine fluoride reduced the caries rates in children [1].
He explained that by loading up plant tissue with aluminum ions it is possible to create a safe biocarbon filter that will readily absorb fluoride ions from water warmed to around 27 Celsius passing through the filter.
Mixture of alum and lime was administered as defluoridating agent in 100, 200 and 300 mg/l concentrations studied for the efficiency of fluoride removal.
After the fluoride treatment, the specimens were submitted to a pH-cycling model essentially based on work by Featherstone et al.
In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, 41% of the drinking-water sources have a fluoride concentration exceeding 1.
And there are other risks: The National Research Council has linked fluoride exposure to bone fractures and crippling skeletal fluorosis, which is commonly misdiagnosed as arthritis.
They have presented before City Council this past month, which lead to Council member Carl DeMaio asking the City Attorney to follow up on the laws that are currently in place to protect San Diegans from fluoride treated water (Municipal code Section 67), and to look in to the use of First 5 Commission funding (tobacco tax dollars) to initiate the construction of treatment tanks and for two years of injections.
Fluoride is the ionic form of the element fluorine, an element abundant in the earth's crust.
The determination of fluoride concentration in the various samples requires very sensitive methods.
The well-recognized and historically documented example of chemically induced enamel hypoplasia refers to the effects of chronic fluoride toxicity on the dentition, and although total fluoride intake will vary with total water consumption, fluoride-induced enamel hypoplasia, also referred to as fluoride mottling, is usually inconspicuous at levels below 1.
The addition of fluoride to potable water is still a controversial issue, despite the fact that in several countries, including America, a majority of the population enjoys the benefits of having fluoride added to their water.