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(flo͞o`ərīt) or


(flo͞o`ərspär), mineral appearing in various colors, e.g., green, yellow-brown, rose, and red. Chemically, it is calcium fluoride, CaF2. Its crystals, commonly cubic, are transparent or translucent and under certain conditions exhibit fluorescence. The mineral also occurs in granular and massive forms. Fluorite is found in various parts of the world, especially in England, Germany, Mexico, and in Kentucky and Illinois in the United States. Its chief use is as a flux in metallurgy, but it is also employed in the preparation of hydrofluoric acid and in the manufacture of opal glass and enamel; some of its colorless crystals are used for making lenses and prisms.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also fluorspar), a mineral of the fluoride group, with the chemical composition CaF2. Small amounts of Ca are sometimes replaced by Y (yielding yttrofluorite), rare-earth elements, Sr, Mn, Na, or U. Fluorite crystallizes in the isometric system, forming the fluorite structure (seeCRYSTAL STRUCTURE). Most fluorite crystals are cubes or octahedrons. The massive varieties may be composite, coarsely crystalline, granular, or earthy; one of the earthy varieties is ratovkite.

Fluorite has a hardness of 4 on Mohs’ scale, a density of 3,180–3,200 kg/m3, and a melting point of 1360°C. The density of yttrofluorite can be as high as 3,300 kg/m3. The mineral comes in various colors, for example, yellow, green, or violet. The coloration is often banded or patchy owing to the formation of color centers. Fluorite is characterized by luminescence upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The luminescence is caused by impurity centers: Eu2+ ions in the blue-violet region of the spectrum and Yb2+ ions in the yellow-green region. Thermoluminescence due to Mn2+ ions and triply ionized atoms of rare-earth elements is observed. Fluorite is isotropic, has a low dispersion and a low refractive index (1.434), and is transparent in the wavelength range 0.0125–10 micrometers. The transparency to such radiation makes fluorite a valuable optical raw material.

Fluorite is a common mineral and occurs in many different kinds of deposits. It is deposited overa broad temperature range, is primarily hydrothermal and metasomatic, and is sometimes found as ratovkite in sedimentary rocks. It is an important typomorphic mineral in genetic mineralogy.

Fluorite is used in metallurgy as a flux, in the chemical industry to produce hydrofluoric acid and cryolite, and in ceramics to manufacture enamels and glazes. It is also employed as the stock material for growing synthetic fluorite crystals. Pure transparent colorless or slightly tinted varieties of fluorite are used in optics to manufacture lenses, objectives, telescopes, and prisms for vacuum and X-ray spectrographs. Synthetic fluorite doped with rare-earth elements or uranium is a laser material.

The fluorite deposits in the USSR include those at Voznesenskoe in the Primor’e Krai, Solonechnoe in Middle Asia, Abagaituiskoe in Transbaikalia, and Taskainar in Kazakhstan. Outside the USSR, fluorite deposits are found in the USA, Mexico, France, and other countries. The deposits in the USA include those at Cave in Rock, 111., and in the Rocky Mountains.


Rostov, I. Mineralogiia. Moscow, 1971. (Translated from English.)
Mineraly: Spravochnik, vol. 2, issue 1. Moscow, 1963.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


CaF2 A transparent to translucent, often blue or purple mineral, commonly found in crystalline cubes in veins and associated with lead, tin, and zinc ores; hardness is 4 on Mohs scale; the principal ore of fluorine. Also known as Derbyshire spar; fluor; fluorspar.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


, fluor (US and Canadian), fluorite
a white or colourless mineral sometimes fluorescent and often tinted by impurities, found in veins and as deposits from hot gases. It is used in the manufacture of glass, enamel, and jewellery, and is the chief ore of fluorine. Composition: calcium fluoride. Formula: CaF2. Crystal structure: cubic
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The stronger affinity of U for F is balanced by the fact that in natural fluids, Cl : F ratios are high (usually >~100 [34, 35]), because the solubility of F is limited by the solubility of minerals such as fluorite, fluorapatite, and F-bearing biotite.
Colour-banded fluorite is common from various world localities, typically dominated by violet, yellow or green bands.
Chapter 5 offers a useful directory of the most important producers of fluorochemicals, hydrofluoric acid, and fluorite, clearly arranged according to contact details, turnover, profit, product range, production sites, profile summary, products, and applications.
Fluorite is well known for the amazing colours it can give out, so much so that it has been given the nickname of "the most colourful mineral in the world".
The booth was not completely set up yet, but I spotted a fine small miniature of French rose-colored fluorite on matrix that Alain thought highly of, even though it is repaired.
Mohs Hardness Scale (the greater the number, the greater the hardness) Mohs Mineral Actual Hardness 2 Gypsum 3 3 Calcite 9 4 Fluorite 21 5 Apatite 48 6 Orthoclase Feldspar 72 7 Quartz 100 8 Topaz 200 9 Corundum 400 10 Diamond 1,600
The other gemstones which are extracted from the area include Ruby, Emerald, Sapphire, Aquamarine, Tourmaline, Garnet, Fluorite, Pargasite, Spinal, Zircon, Topaz, Berylspar, Corundum, Marganite, Serpentine, Sulpher, Moonstone, Amethyst.
Calcite and dolomite minerals together with fluorite are reported as fracture fillings in the Rapakivi-like batholites and all of them are related to the Caledonian Deformation Front around the Baltic-Scandinavian Region.
The range will be available in five great girlie colours - camilla pink, berry bloom pink, impressionist blue, indigo and fluorite.
In the meantime, the assembly of NMS has decided to initiate bankruptcy proceedings and RAS awarded the concession of the mine Genna Tres Montis, formerly managed by NMS, to the newly created company Fluorite di Silius SpA (FdS), fully owned by RAS, and transferred all former NMS workers and part of the remaining assets to FdS.
THE EUROPEAN Commission has ordered the repayment of Euro 98.36 million subsidies paid to Sardinia fluorite mining company Nuova Mineraria Silius (NMS), maybe condemning the business to liquidation.
One of the best known locations of fluorite is at Castleton in Derbyshire where this stone is mined as Derbyshire Blue John.