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Flushing,Netherlands: see VlissingenVlissingen
, city (1994 pop. 44,211), Zeeland prov., SW Netherlands, on the southern coast of the former island of Walcheren. Its manufactures include shipbuilding, chemicals, and gears.
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Flushing,former village, now in N Queens borough of New York City, SE N.Y.; chartered 1645, inc. into Greater New York City with Queens in 1898. Although chiefly residential, Flushing has gained importance as a trading and manufacturing center. It was chartered (as Vlissingen) by the Dutch West India Company to English settlers, who anglicized the name. It is the seat of Queens College of the City Univ. of New York and the Queens Botanical Gardens. The Bowne House (1661) and the Quaker meetinghouse (c.1696) are landmarks of the colonial period. Flushing Meadow (now a park) was the site of two New York World's Fairs (1939–40, 1964–65) and temporary headquarters of the United Nations (1946–49). Citi Field, home of the New York Mets (baseball), is there, as is the United States Tennis Association Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, the site of the U.S. Open championships.
(in mining), the packing of material into a worked-out area formed underground as a result of the extraction of minerals. Flushing materials include crushed rock from quarries (sand, gravel, pebbles, slate, and limestone) and mine tailings and industrial waste products (rock produced as a by-product during the mining of a mineral in the shaft, shaft rubble, waste from dressing plants, and slag from metallurgical works and boilers). Binding agents are added in so-called solid flushing. Flushing may be complete (if the entire excavated space is filled) or partial (if only a certain part of the space is filled—in the form of strips or layers).
Flushing is classified according to the method of conveyance and packing used (hydraulic, pneumatic, hydropneumatic, mechanical, gravity-flow, and manual). The process is used to control mine pressure, to reduce mineral losses under the ground, to prevent underground fires, to reduce deformations of the ground surface, to prevent damage to objects near the areas being worked, to increase the safety of mining operations, and to improve underground mine ventilation, as well as for the disposal in the shaft or mine of rock excavated during the preliminary development work.
REFERENCESGeront’ev, V. I. Metody zakladki vyrabotannogo prostranstva. Moscow, 1948.
Smoldyrev, A. E. Mekhcnizatsiia zakladochnykh rabot pri razrabotke mdnykh mestorozhdenii. Moscow, 1958.
Furman, A. A. Zakladka vyrabotannogo prostranstva. Moscow, 1958.
Dobrovol’skii, V. V., V. F. Erofeev, and S. G. Skopin. Primenenie zakladki vyrabotannogo prostranstva pri razrabotke mestorazhdenii poleznykh iskopaemykh. Moscow, 1969.
V. V. DOBROVOL’SKII