folklore


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folklore,

the body of customs, legends, beliefs, and superstitions passed on by oral tradition. It includes folk dancesfolk dance,
primitive, tribal, or ethnic form of the dance, sometimes the survival of some ancient ceremony or festival. The term is used also to include characteristic national dances, country dances, and figure dances in costume to folk tunes.
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, folk songsfolk song,
music of anonymous composition, transmitted orally. The theory that folk songs were originally group compositions has been modified in recent studies. These assume that the germ of a folk melody is produced by an individual and altered in transmission into a
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, folk medicinefolk medicine,
methods of curing by means of healing objects, herbs, or animal parts; ceremony; conjuring, magic, or witchcraft; and other means apart from the formalized practice of medical science.
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 (the use of magical charms and herbs), and folktalesfolktale,
general term for any of numerous varieties of traditional narrative. The telling of stories appears to be a cultural universal, common to pre-industrial, ancient, and more modern and developed societies alike.
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 (myths, rhymes, and proverbs). The study of folklore emerged significantly in the 19th cent., partly out of the rise of European romanticism, with its interest in the past, and partly out of nationalism, with its stress on the indigenous. Today most folklorists and anthropologists regard folk customs, legends, and beliefs as an imaginative expression by a people of its desires, attitudes, and cultural values. Folk heroes (e.g., Frederick Barbarossa in Germany, the Cid in Spain, Robin Hood in England, Cuchulain in Ireland, Paul Bunyan in the United States, and Yü in China) have been said to reflect the civilization from which they sprang. Many theories have arisen to explain folk tales—Max Müller, a philologist, interpreted the legends as linguistic corruptions; Jakob Grimm saw them as corrupted cosmic allegories; the German school considered them as personified elements of nature; Edward Tylor and Andrew Lang held them to be survivals from a savage society; Freud and the psychoanalytical school found them fraught with sexual symbolism. Folklore has become increasingly important in the study of primitive societies and in understanding the history of mankind. Almost every country has a folklore society which collects, analyzes, and publishes folk material (e.g., in the United States the American Folklore Society publishes the Journal of American Folklore). For further information, see games, children'sgames, children's,
amusements or pastimes involving more than one child and in which there is some sort of formalized dramatic element, contest, or plot. Games are a cultural universal; for example, the string play called Cat's Cradle is common to cultures as varied as Eskimo,
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; monsters and imaginary beasts in folkloremonsters and imaginary beasts.
The mythologies and legends of ancient and modern cultures teem with an enormous variety of monsters and imaginary beasts. A great number of these are composites of different existing animals or of human beings and animals.
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; mythologymythology
[Greek,=the telling of stories], the entire body of myths in a given tradition, and the study of myths. Students of anthropology, folklore, and religion study myths in different ways, distinguishing them from various other forms of popular, often orally transmitted,
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.

Bibliography

See C. L. Daniels and C. M. Stevans, ed., Encyclopedia of Superstitions, Folklore, and the Occult Sciences of the World (1971); D. Emrich, Folklore on the American Land (1972); R. M. Dorson, ed., Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction (1972); T. P. Coffin and H. Cohen, Folklore from the Working Folk of America (1973); R. M. Dorson, America in Legend (1974); A. Dundes, Analytic Essays in Folklore (1975).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

folklore

1. the unwritten literature of a people as expressed in folk tales, proverbs, riddles, songs, etc.
2. the body of stories and legends attached to a particular place, group, activity, etc.
3. the anthropological discipline concerned with the study of folkloric materials
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The Rozhen National Folklore Fair is a major Bulgarian folklore fair held every four years on the meadows of the Rozhen area in Smolyan municipality, in the Rhodope Mountains, Southern Bulgaria.
Overall everything falling within the domain of folklore of their respective regions.
She also noted that 'local usage of a work of folklore outside the customary context and/or for commercial purposes includes but is not limited to, the use of an Adinkra symbol for a company's corporate branding and the use of other expressions of folklore for promotional and other commercial purposes,' she wrote.
HBO Asia CEO Jonathan Spink, however, suggested the catchier 'Food Lore,' inspired by the success and name recall of 'Folklore.' Khoo's episode will center on 'high-end and cheap cuisine.'
He explored the pavilion's various sections on Al-Qassim's past and present, and viewed craftwork, folklore and visual arts.
Other examples of the folklore of Sindh include the stories of Umar Marui and Suhuni Mehar.
Two notable research scholars of Sindhi folklore in Pakistan, Dr Nabi Bukhsh Baloch and Dr Abdul Karim Sandilo, make no mention of Jamalo in this respect.
The project was implemented by MIRASSocialOrganizationin Support of Studying ofCultural Heritage with the assistance of the Azerbaijan Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Agsu Executive Power as well asthe Institute of Folklore.
The connection between Internet memes and proverbs may seem tenuous, but ask any folklorist and they'll let you know that these two forms share one major thing: they're folklore.
Though, the Pashto folklore literature heritage is at the edge of disappearance from society.
(Prajapati et al.,2003) Folklore: Roots are used as narcotic.
Indeed, after studying folklore in the late 1940s at the University of Kiel under the eminent folklorists Walter Anderson and Kurt Ranke, Bill was asked by Professor of German Studies Fritz Braun to fill a German-language teaching position at the University of Glasgow that had lain vacant since the beginning of the Second World War.