Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

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Related to follicle stimulating hormone: luteinizing hormone

gonadotropic hormone

gonadotropic hormone (gōˌnădətrŏpˈĭk) or gonadotropin, any one of three glycoprotein (see protein) hormones released by either the anterior pituitary gland or the placenta (the organ in which maternal and fetal blood exchange nutrients and waste products) that have various effects upon the ovaries and testes (see testis). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) is produced and released from the hypothalamus. Gn-RH release stimulates the secretion of both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland. Gn-RH is a peptide composed of ten amino acids which are synthesized in the hypothalamus (that portion of the brain nearest the pituitary). This hormone travels in the bloodstream to the anterior pituitary, where it causes the release of the gonadotropic hormones. The hormones FSH and LH inhibit the amount of Gn-RH released by a mechanism called “negative feedback.” In the female, FSH causes an increase in the weight of the ovaries and encourages the growth of Graafian follicles (containing maturing eggs); in males, FSH produces spermatogenesis in the testes. In females, secretion of LH is associated with the maturation of the follicles, the manifestation of heat (or estrus), and the release of the egg from the follicle, which is transformed into a corpus luteum. In males, LH stimulates the testes to release testosterone. Sex hormones released from the ovaries and testes eventually reach the hypothalamus and help to regulate the hormonal cycle. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), produced in the placenta, helps to maintain pregnancy once a fetus begins to develop. It appears in the urine in approximately the first week after the first missed menstrual period, and is the basis for two kinds of pregnancy tests; in the Ascheim-Zondek testm it causes the ovaries of an immature female rat or mouse to gain weight and produce ripened follicles, and in the Friedman test, it stimulates female rabbits to ovulate.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone


(FSH), a gonado-trophic hormone in man and other vertebrates produced by the anterior pituitary.

Chemically, the hormone is a glycoprotein; its primary structure has not been established. The molecular weight of FSH in sheep is 67,000; the molecular weight for swine is 29,000. The molecule consists of two subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha sub-unit is similar to the alpha subunits of luteinizing and thyrotropic hormones, whereas the beta subunit differs from the beta subunits of these hormones. The biological properties of FSH are determined solely by the beta subunit (in lizards, the beta subunit is as active as the native hormone). In females, FSH stimulates the development of follicles up to ovulation and promotes the growth of ovarian interstitial tissue; these effects lead to an increase in the secretion of female sex hormones, or estrogens. In males, FSH promotes the growth of the seminiferous tubules and stimulates spermatogenesis and the secretion of male sex hormones, or androgens. FSH acts jointly with the luteinizing hormone.

The synthesis and excretion of FSH are regulated both by the FSH releasing factor, which is elaborated by the hypothalamus, and by the levels of androgen and estrogen in the blood; as the concentrations of androgen and estrogen increase, the secretion of FSH decreases.


Pankov, Iu. A. “Struktura i svoistva gipofizarnykh gormonov,” part 2: “Belkovye gormony gipofiza.” Problemy endokrinologii, 1974, vol. 20, no. 3.
Pierce, J G. “Properties of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Comparison With Those of the Gonadotropins.” Biochemical Society Transactions, 1974, vol. 2, no. 5.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

follicle-stimulating hormone

[¦fäl·ə·kəl ¦stim·yə‚lād·iŋ ′hȯr‚mōn]
A protein hormone released by the anterior pituitary of vertebrates which stimulates growth and secretion of the Graafian follicle and also promotes spermatogenesis. Abbreviated FSH.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Five patients (11%) showed fluctuating follicle stimulating hormone levels of more than 40 iu/l which dropped down to near normal after few months and then again went up.
Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the cDNA for the precursor of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit.
Somatomedin-C synergizes with follicle stimulating hormone in the acquisition of progesterone biosynthetic capacity by cultured rat granulosa cells.
Most of the girls in the high-intensity regimen group (64%) had high follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, suggesting primary ovarian failure; 71% of them also had low estradiol levels.
Univariate logistic regression was executed to obtain odds ratio with 95% confidence interval to quantify the association of predictors like age, duration of infertility, oocytes parameters, hormones; Estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, prolactin and cytokines interleukin-Ib (IL-Ib) with the FR.
Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 3 of the cycle and the ratio was calculated.
The researchers measured levels of estradiol (E2), a hormone produced by the ovaries, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) that comes from the pituitary gland and triggers the production of eggs.
The hormones studied were follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and estradiol on the third day and estradiol, progesterone, and PRL on the 22nd day of menstrual cycle.
High levels of the follicle stimulating hormone, a well-known marker of poor fertility, were twice as likely in O group women.
Pharmaceutical company Watson Pharmaceuticals Inc (NYSE:WPI) said on Thursday that the company has entered into an exclusive, worldwide licensing agreement with biopharmaceutical company Itero Biopharmaceuticals Inc to develop and commercialise Itero's Recombinant Follicle Stimulating Hormone (rFSH).
The ovulatory effects of follicle stimulating hormone treated with chymotrypsin in chlorpromazine blocked rats.
Total urinary follicle stimulating hormone as a biomarker for detection of early pregnancy and peri-implantation spontaneous abortion.

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