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It focuses on aspects related to follicular atresia and apoptosis process during different follicular stages.
Thereinto, MAPK is an important signaling pathway in cell proliferation and may function in granulosa cell death and follicular atresia [58].
Papers using BMP15 have also checked their important role in the prevention of follicular atresia in somatic cells (Hussein et al., 2005; Yoshino et al., 2006).
The presence of follicular atresia is usually observed in ovarian vertebrates, both in natural environment and under captive conditions (Saidapur, 1978), nevertheless, some factors may increase the frequency of follicular atresia and may even adversely affect fecundity (Sharma & Bhat, 2014).
(44) In pig ovaries, as in those of other species, apoptotic cell death induces follicular atresia. Therefore, VEGF may suppress granulosa cell apoptosis and inhibit follicular atresia.
Follicular atresia, defined as the death of ovarian follicles prior to ovulation, has been proposed as an important factor for regulation of clutch size (Mendez-de la Cruz et al., 1993).
In the ovarian sections, the number of atretic follicles and regressing corpus luteum that retained at least one caspase-3-positive cell was counted and divided by the total number of follicles and corpus luteum, respectively, in order to calculate the incidence (percentage) of follicular atresia and luteal regression.
The fate of follicular atresia due to surgical or other pathological disorders is not fully understood.
This AQ-induced oxidative stress also led to increased follicular atresia which in turn led to reduced follicle numbers and reduced oocyte numbers at ovulation (Gbotolorun et al., 2011a, b).
Histological study of follicular atresia in the ovary of the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).
Follicular atresia is commonly observed near the close of the reproductive season when follicles that did not complete vitellogenesis degenerate (Goldberg 1973).
Isolation and in vitro culture of preantral and early antral follicles aim to prevent follicular atresia by rescuing the preantral and early antral follicles population from the ovaries and by culturing the follicles in vitro up to the maturation stage and embryo production.

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