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Engineering a machine part that derives its motion by following the motion of another part
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an electronic amplifier stage with a gain of almost unity; as a rule, the gain is between 0.95 and 0.99. Followers are widely used in various radio-engineering devices. They serve as a buffer stage (impedance transformer) that isolates the signal source from the load in cases where the resistances of the source and the load are markedly different. Followers can be classified as voltage and current types. They can also be classified as inverting and noninverting types, where inversion means that the polarity or the phase of the input-signal oscillations is changed

Figure 1. Followers: (a) cathode, (b) emitter, (c) source: (ET) electron tube; (T) transistor; (FT) field-effect transistor; (R) load resistor; (Uin) voltage of input signal; (Uout) voltage of output signal; (Ean), (Eco), and (Edr) constant voltages fed to anode, collector, and drain, respectively

at the output of the stage. Amplification of power—the general property of an amplifier stage—is also exhibited by followers. Voltage followers therefore amplify the input current, and current followers amplify the input voltage.

Noninverting voltage followers are most widely used. In contrast to conventional amplifier stages, they typically exhibit an increased input impedance—in particular, a smaller input capacitance—and a decreased output impedance. Because of this characteristic, they can transmit signals from a high-impedance source—for example, a source with an impedance of 1 megohm—to a load with a low impedance, such as ~ 10 ohms, practically without attenuation. A typical example of a low-impedance load is a length of coaxial cable that connects individual units of electronic equipment.

Voltage followers are also classified by the type of electronic device used in their circuitry. Cathode followers use an electron tube (Figure 1,a), emitter followers a bipolar transistor (Figure 1,b), and source followers a field-effect transistor (Figure 1,c). All of these types exhibit a strong (“100-percent”) negative feedback. As a result, they have an increased linearity and stability of characteristics, a greater bandwidth, and a wider amplitude range of the input signal. Voltage followers in integrated circuits generally make use of a dual or a compound transistor.


Erglis, K. E., and I. P. Stepanenko, Elektronnye usiliteli, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964
Stepanenko, I. P. Osnovy teorii tranzistorov i tranzistomykh skhem, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A drill used for making all but the first part of a hole, the first part being made with a drill of larger gage.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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The New York Times recently published an expose on the practice of buying followers, a sizeable number of which are bots or robots that either steal a person's identity or use a random string of letters and numbers as a username.
This aggregate level of trust was operationalized as each participant's trust network in-degree centrality (Freeman, 1979), and referred to as follower trust centrality.
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Buying Instagram followers is cheap and easy with many services charging around $3 USD for every 100 followers.
She likens it to a newspaper inflating its circulation figures: A falsified follower count can falsely induce real people to follow someone they might otherwise ignore.
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It is also evident in taxonomies offered by Ira Chaleff, who categorized followers by the degree to which they challenged or supported leaders in his 1995 book, The Courageous Follower, last updated with the third edition in 2009.
By walking in the shoes of a follower one learns the sometimes startling differences between the perceptions of leaders and everyday realities of followers.
Furthermore, I looked at two processes that may explain the relationship between ethical leadership and a follower taking charge: a social exchange process, by which ethical leadership enhances trust in the leader and which, in turn, enhances the likelihood of a follower taking charge; and a social identity process, by which ethical leadership enhances followers' personal identification with their leader, thus enhancing the likelihood of the followers taking charge.
Recently, new functions are used to design the follower motion; for example, spline (Nguyen & Kim, 2007; Mermelstein & Acar, 2003), B-spline (Jiang & Iwai, 2009), and Bezier curves (Hidalgo et al., 2014) have been successfully applied in cam design.