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Engineering a machine part that derives its motion by following the motion of another part
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an electronic amplifier stage with a gain of almost unity; as a rule, the gain is between 0.95 and 0.99. Followers are widely used in various radio-engineering devices. They serve as a buffer stage (impedance transformer) that isolates the signal source from the load in cases where the resistances of the source and the load are markedly different. Followers can be classified as voltage and current types. They can also be classified as inverting and noninverting types, where inversion means that the polarity or the phase of the input-signal oscillations is changed

Figure 1. Followers: (a) cathode, (b) emitter, (c) source: (ET) electron tube; (T) transistor; (FT) field-effect transistor; (R) load resistor; (Uin) voltage of input signal; (Uout) voltage of output signal; (Ean), (Eco), and (Edr) constant voltages fed to anode, collector, and drain, respectively

at the output of the stage. Amplification of power—the general property of an amplifier stage—is also exhibited by followers. Voltage followers therefore amplify the input current, and current followers amplify the input voltage.

Noninverting voltage followers are most widely used. In contrast to conventional amplifier stages, they typically exhibit an increased input impedance—in particular, a smaller input capacitance—and a decreased output impedance. Because of this characteristic, they can transmit signals from a high-impedance source—for example, a source with an impedance of 1 megohm—to a load with a low impedance, such as ~ 10 ohms, practically without attenuation. A typical example of a low-impedance load is a length of coaxial cable that connects individual units of electronic equipment.

Voltage followers are also classified by the type of electronic device used in their circuitry. Cathode followers use an electron tube (Figure 1,a), emitter followers a bipolar transistor (Figure 1,b), and source followers a field-effect transistor (Figure 1,c). All of these types exhibit a strong (“100-percent”) negative feedback. As a result, they have an increased linearity and stability of characteristics, a greater bandwidth, and a wider amplitude range of the input signal. Voltage followers in integrated circuits generally make use of a dual or a compound transistor.


Erglis, K. E., and I. P. Stepanenko, Elektronnye usiliteli, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964
Stepanenko, I. P. Osnovy teorii tranzistorov i tranzistomykh skhem, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A drill used for making all but the first part of a hole, the first part being made with a drill of larger gage.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hypothesis 3: Perceived organizational support will mediate the relationship between positive leaders' implicit followership theory and employees' career success.
To support such an understanding, Kelley developed a taxonomy of five followership styles, arrayed along a continuum from dependent (uncritical) to independent (critical) thinking and from passive to active participation.
Kelley, who has conducted extensive research on followership, "Effective followers think for themselves and carry out their duties and assignments with energy and assertiveness.
"International leadership" means a set of processes in which a state, with its resources, mobilizes and influences through multidimensional channels a group of other states (followership) to achieve a common goal.
Figure II presents the standardized estimates of the hypothesized model that depicts the relationships between the followership and leadership dimensions.
William O'Connell argues that it "takes true moral courage to risk a comfortable niche in the unit by advocating an unpopular idea." (42) One of the problems associated with followership is its negative connotation as being a weak, passive, or conforming position.
Regardless of whether a leapfrog successor is internal or external, it's crucial to manage the risk by having a clear, complete and dependable means to determine current followership and capabilities as well as future potential and development needs.
The ability of champions of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) to mobilize the UN Security Council to halt or avert mass atrocity crimes has yet to be framed explicitly in terms of the dynamic interplay of leadership and followership. Yet as we argue in this article, the latter is a precondition for the former.
During the event, scheduled to start at 6pm, Eldridge wants to introduce "a more effective style of leadership -- and 'followership' -- into companies that will move them from average to high performance."