football hooliganism


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football hooliganism

the violent crowd disorder, and associated football-related disturbances away from football grounds, which first attracted major public and media attention in the 1960s. After initial attempts to explain football violence in terms of the psychological characteristics of the ‘hooligans’ (Harrington, 1968), more recently a variety of sociological explanations have been suggested:
  1. opposition to the commercialization of football and the growing distance between players and the owners of clubs on the one hand, and ordinary working-class supporters on the other (Taylor, 1971);
  2. rather than ‘true’ violence, behaviour which appears disordered and threatening in fact often has its own ‘rules of disorder’: is ritualized (Marsh et al., 1978);
  3. deriving from LABELLING THEORY and DEVIANCE AMPLIFICATION (see Cohen, 1973), ‘hooliganism’ is seen as a media-amplified MORAL PANIC;
  4. since football violence has a long history increased modern attention to it is a reflection of a ‘civilizing’ tendency in society which has resulted in a lower societal tolerance of violence of the kind long associated with working-class conceptions of masculinity but now socially unacceptable (Dunning et al., 1988) (see also CIVILIZING PROCESS.

Arguably, each of these explanations has some justification.

References in periodicals archive ?
POLICE yesterday issued a CCTV image of a Rangers fan they want to track down in connection with football hooliganism that left a man with a head injury.
The card, which is one of the measures aimed at tackling football hooliganism, came into effect at the start of this football season despite the strong objections of clubs that, helped by the political parties, managed to delay its introduction for some years.
The figures also reveal that 60 Sunderland supporters were arrested for football hooliganism, the third highest amount in the UK behind Sheffield United and Birmingham City.
Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir today urged local sports fans to not add fuel to fire by participating in any form of football hooliganism with supporters of opposing countries.
Summary: Washington D.C., [USA] June 23 (ANI): The desire to protect and defend other fans is one of the main reasons behind the consistency of football hooliganism.
An expelled university student falls in with a young man who introduces him to the dog-eat-dog world of violent football hooliganism.
Football hooliganism - booze definitely fuelled my dad's violence.
The King affirmed that football hooliganism is rejected.
A SPECIAL "war cabinet" was set up in the 1980s to tackle rural violence and football hooliganism.
At a time when football hooliganism is on the rise, the last thing we need in the game is to be soft on it.
The Reading Chronicle's article on Thursday, titled 'The Other Face of Football', read: "Football hooliganism may be thought of as a relic from a previous age when gangs of denim-clad skinheads held the game to ransom and names like Hillsborough and Heysel were symbols of its ills."