(Note: The spot pairs are at an angle, and the higher footpoint
has an opposite polarity as the hemisphere it's in.
Second, in each camera FOV, based on the detection results, FootPoint
tracking is done by utilizing Kalman Filter and Hungarian data association algorithm  to improve the performance of track association.
The heat conduction heats the footpoint
portion of a loop which is dense, and the heated plasma expands upward and fills the loop.
the R-wave peak of the ECG waveform to the footpoint
of the PPG pulse from left toe, for MSE and multiscale cross-approximate entropy (MCAE) analyses in type 2 diabetes .
Vrubliauskas, "Mathematical methods for determining the footpoint
of the arterial pulse wave and evaluation of proposed methods", Information on Technology and Control, vol.
This time difference of hard X-rays with various energies is a consequence of the magnetic trapping of electrons near the loop top and the subsequent precipitation into the footpoint
. Unlike the no-diffusion case, electrons can escape from the magnetic trap via pitch-angle scattering which is strongly energy dependent.
On camera, red plasma flows into the loop from one footpoint
while blue plasma simultaneously flows into the loop from the other end.
The scientists suggested that the upflow of gases is probably the result of "impulsive heating" close to the footpoint
regions of the loops.
In the other, neighboring fields wind around each other, creating what the researchers call "a bowl of tangled spaghetti." The corona's heat comes from energy released as the spaghetti tries to untangle itself, while the footpoint
motion continues to stir it up.
In an active region each loop is anchored at a so-called footpoint
. The magnetic fields arch up from a footpoint
of one polarity and then descend to another of opposite polarity -- sometimes tens of thousands of kilometers away.
While some of the charged particles would have brightly illuminated one of the footpoints
with hard X-ray emissions, collisions would have prevented most of them from ever reaching the second footpoint
The authors suggest such flares result from what amounts to an explosion--"the sudden creation of a high-pressure region at the footpoint
of a coronal loop." The result would be "upflowing, hot (coronal) plasma and downflowing, cool (chromospheric) plasma," with "equal and opposite momenta."