4D flow MRI assessment of right atrial flow patterns in the normal heart - influence of caval vein arrangement and implications for the patent foramen ovale
. PLoS One 2017;12:e0173046.
Various irregular grooves and inconstant foramina can be found in close proximity of foramen ovale
. These inconstant patterns can be interpreted as arising from the interplay of the various parts of the membrane bones and the emissary venous plexus from pterygoid venous plexus to middle meningeal veins.
In this study, we assessed the foramen ovale
flow dynamics in fetuses with IUGR and with adequate growth of both normotensive and hypertensive women.
Zuber et al., "Clinical and imaging findings in cryptogenic stroke patients with and without patent foramen ovale
: the PFO-ASA study," Stroke, vol.
Martin et al., "Frameless stereotactic cannulation of the foramen ovale
for ablative treatment of trigeminal neuralgia," Operative Neurosurgery, vol.
Patent foramen ovale
was defined on the basis of transesophageal echocardiographic evidence of a separation between the septum primum and septum secundum, with the demonstration of right-to-left shunt by contrast injection .
Patent foramen ovale
increases the risk for paradoxical embolism and this may result in neurological disorders related to ischemia (stroke or TIA) .
Inherited thrombophilic disorders in young adults with ischemic stroke and patent foramen ovale
. Stroke 2003; 34:28-33.
Given this widespread distribution, it is unlikely that a single embolic or iatrogenic source plus a structural cardiac abnormality (e.g., a patent foramen ovale
) could account for all gas sites observed.
Meier, "Paradoxical emboli through the patent foramen ovale
as the suspected cause of myocardial and renal infarction in a 48-year-old woman," Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol.
Vascular complications are rare in this syndrome, generally involving the reopening of a patent foramen ovale
or pulmonary artery compression .
Along with the foramen ovale
and the ductus arteriosus, the ductus venosus serves as a major vascular shunt in fetal circulation during intrauterine development.