where [k.sub.eff] is the effective local force constant
, [k.sub.3eff] is the cubic effective parameter giving an asymmetry of the anharmonic effective potential, and x is deviation of the instantaneous bond length between two immediate neighboring atoms r from its equilibrium value [r.sub.0].
This therefore produces a higher force constant
value than if the DNA is stretched slowly.
The defect dependence of the Curie temperature in ferroelectric crystals is discussed by some workers  considering the change in mass and harmonic force constants
between the impurity atoms and the host lattice atoms.
therefore, the force constant
for the dimer corresponds to a very small 0.108 x [10.sup.5] dyn/cm.
AFM observed was conducted in atmospheric using a 12 mm or 150 mm scanner and wide triangular shaped 200 mm cantilevers made of gold-coated [Si.sub.3],[N.sub.4], with force constant
of 0.12 N/m.
where [k.sub.F] is the force constant
dependent on the useful area and the position of cylinder, and [p.sub.do] is directly proportional to electrical (voltage) signal applied on the actuator:
The contact force varies proportionally with deflection according to the spring's force constant
, and can provide less than desirable results, proving very difficult to program.
The spring constant of the cantilever may be smaller than the force constant
holding atoms together in most solids, so that the cantilever flexes as it crosses the surface of a sample.
In addition, the stretching frequency of the S-S bond was found to be 734 [cm.sub.-1], which indicates that the bond order should be 2.2 after a normal coordinate analysis, gave a force constant
of 5.08 mydn/[Angstrom].
It is clear that a 110-ps MD run (cool time 10 ps, [K.sub.fd] 7, angle not restrained) of the conformer (3a) and a snapshot at 37.7 ps both followed by the GO with the same force constant
further lowers the angle and torsional interaction energy (items 5 and 6, conformers (3b) and (3c)).
56) modeled the viscous and elastic components of a macromolecule by simplifying the structure to a series of segments that behave its Hookian springs where the force constant
is based on Brownian motion and is proportional to the temperature of the system.
Features include a linear force constant
characteristic for simple control.