forces of production

forces of production

(MARXISM) the material bases of production, including raw materials, tools and instruments, sometimes also including the technical division of labour. The term is often equivalent to the MEANS OF PRODUCTION, although this concept may be narrower, excluding the technical division of labour. See also MODE OF PRODUCTION, RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION.
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Disney's Star Wars: Forces of Production, Promotion, and Reception
It is workers, therefore, who must own and manage the forces of production. By building solidarity and popular power, workers are not looking for better employment conditions under an exploitative system that commoditises skills.
The production of this scientific consciousness in the laboring classes as a result of the material development of the forces of production, argues Inigo Carrera (2013 [2003]), is capital's constitutive contradiction and sets the foundations for its supersession.
For more than forty years, Allan Sekula worked intently to uncover the ways in which forces of production shape social relations--to reveal what Marx called "the contradictions of material life"--in a world structured by the increasingly globalized markets of advanced capitalism.
These changes go beyond a mere restructuring and reorganization of global economy and markets and are characterized by a complete transformation and remodeling of use values in the form of labour and in the forces of production --the dematerialized form of labour in which we act in order to produce goods and construct our world.
With this in mind, let us consider the conditions and forces of production under industrial capitalism and how those conditions and forces led to a transformation within the mode of production and, at the same time, a transformation in the ontology of the subject.
Forces of production; a social history of industrial automation.
This is a point famously made by Marx in his Preface to A Contribution to a Critique of Political Economy: 'In the social production of their existence, men (sic) inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises the legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.'
Moreover, he offers us the general caveat, modeled on Marx's distinction between the social relations of production and the forces of production themselves, that we should be focused on the social relations of mobility without fetishizing the various forms of mobility themselves.
Raised originally by Marx to resound within the setting of the Napoleonic Wars, during which time the bourgeoisie not only facilitated the transition in France between the Terror ("permanent war") and "permanent revolution" but also helped to crush its very momentum by artificially creating a famine that eventually delayed the Russian campaign, bringing the machinery of revolution to a halt, the term implies not so much a revolutionary class in itself as a kind of historical agency, an always fluctuating titration of the "decisive forces of production." This idea is further refined in later formulations leading up to the March 1850 address, in which Marx's theory is no longer about revolution per se, but appears as a sort of wakeup call to the forces of political subjection.
The New Atlantis is a utopia of the forces of production which also reveals More's Utopia to have been a utopia of the relations of production (289).
Such information reveals the printed word to have been an industrial product on par with pig iron or steel and equally susceptible to the forces of production. This raises the question of a cost/benefit analysis of Soviet newsprint; but for a regime so wedded to industrial productivity, the Communists had remarkably few tools by which to gauge language's utilitarian efficacy.

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