foreign aid


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foreign aid,

economic, military, technical, and financial assistance given on an international, and usually intergovernmental level. U.S. foreign aid programs have included at least three different objectives: rehabilitating the economies of war-devastated countries, strengthening the military defenses of allies and friends of the United States, and promoting economic growth in underdeveloped areas. Aid may be given as a grant, with no repayment obligation, or a loan, and often comes with conditions that require that the recipient nation purchase goods or services with the aid from the donor nation.

During and after World War II

Foreign aid, as an integral part of U.S. foreign policy, began (1941) during World War II with lend-leaselend-lease,
arrangement for the transfer of war supplies, including food, machinery, and services, to nations whose defense was considered vital to the defense of the United States in World War II. The Lend-Lease Act, passed (1941) by the U.S.
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. In planning for the postwar world, the United States hoped that after a brief relief program, the international balance would gradually be restored, and long-term reconstruction projects would be financed by loans from the International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentInternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
(IBRD), independent specialized agency of the United Nations, with headquarters at Washington, D.C.; one of five closely associated development institutions (also including the International Center for Settlement of
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 (IRBD; also known as the World Bank) and the International Monetary FundInternational Monetary Fund
(IMF), specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1945. It was planned at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944), and its headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
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 (IMF). Therefore U.S. foreign aid was chiefly in the form of emergency grants without any kind of central organization. Initially, the United States provided a large proportion of the funds of the international cost-sharing organization, the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation AdministrationUnited Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
(UNRRA), organization founded (1943) during World War II to give aid to areas liberated from the Axis powers. There were finally 52 participating countries, each of which contributed funds amounting to 2% of its national
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 (UNRRA), established in 1943 by the Allied governments to provide a broad range of services to the war-devastated Allies. UNRRA spent $4 billion, but the actual dimensions of postwar reconstruction had been greatly underestimated. Conditions in Western Europe, which, unlike Southern and Eastern Europe, had received little UNRRA aid, became desperate, and in June, 1947, the Marshall PlanMarshall Plan
or European Recovery Program,
project instituted at the Paris Economic Conference (July, 1947) to foster economic recovery in certain European countries after World War II. The Marshall Plan took form when U.S. Secretary of State George C.
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 was announced by Secretary of State George C. Marshall. Known formally as the European Recovery Program, it distributed (1948–51) over $12 billion through the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (the predecessor of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).

During the Cold War

The Truman Doctrine of the same year provided aid to Greece in its struggle against Communist guerrillas, and to Turkey, which was under pressure from the Soviet Union. Later, with the escalation of the cold warcold war,
term used to describe the shifting struggle for power and prestige between the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the end of World War II until 1989. Of worldwide proportions, the conflict was tacit in the ideological differences between communism and
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, U.S. foreign aid to Western Europe shifted from economic to military assistance to members of North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), established under the North Atlantic Treaty (Apr. 4, 1949) by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States.
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. Concurrently, the increasing needs of the underdeveloped nations led to President Truman's Point Four programPoint Four program,
U.S. foreign aid project aimed at providing technological skills, knowledge, and equipment to poor nations throughout the world. The program also encouraged the flow of private investment capital to these nations.
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. From the time of the Korean WarKorean War,
conflict between Communist and non-Communist forces in Korea from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel into Soviet (North Korean) and U.S. (South Korean) zones of occupation.
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, defense became the umbrella for most forms of U.S. foreign assistance. The administration of aid was centralized under the Mutual Security Agency, an executive agency in the office of the President. During the early 1950s surplus agricultural commodities, accumulated under domestic price-support programs, became available as an additional source of aid: the Food for Peace program. In 1955 responsibility for foreign aid was returned to the Dept. of State when the International Cooperation Administration was established. Military aid was administered by the Dept. of Defense.

Aid, as administered under Presidents Reagan and G. H. W. Bush, was increasingly used to promote American investment, national interests, and market economies, but its main impetus was to protect other nations from Communist influence. In the early 1950s the Soviet Union began a program of technical and economic aid to the underdeveloped nations. Soviet aid, over $6 billion by 1966, was generally low-interest loans, industrial equipment on credit with technical assistance, and long-term commodity purchase agreements. Begun in 1955, it was discontinued with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since then, the American rationale for foreign aid has become politically more vulnerable.

In Recent Years

Although military aid continues to be provided, largely on a grant basis, economic development aid is provided increasingly as loans through the Agency for International DevelopmentAgency for International Development
(AID), federal agency created (Sept., 1961) to consolidate U.S. nonmilitary foreign aid programs. Originally an agency in the State Department, it has been a component part of the U.S.
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 and the Export-Import Bank, which finances the export of U.S. capital goods and agricultural products. A large proportion of U.S. aid goes to Israel, Egypt, and developing countries. In 2000, U.S. foreign aid amounted to $10 billion (less than 0.6% of the federal budget); the share of the gross domestic product (GDP) for foreign aid dropped from 2.75% in 1949 to 0.1% in 2000. In 2004 the United States began the Millennium Challenge aid program, which is intended to target aid toward poorer nations with good governance and open economies; the program places fewer restrictions on how participating nations use the aid.

Many nations in Europe and some in the Middle East and E Asia also have significant aid programs; in the mid and late 1990s, Japan was the world's largest foreign aid donor, followed by United States, France, and Germany. Great Britain, generally on a smaller scale, has provided aid to former colonies. Beginning in 2001, the United States passed Japan as the world's largest donor as a result of Japanese cutbacks in foreign aid. About 15% of foreign aid is provided by international bodies. These include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its affiliates, the International Development Association, and the International Finance Corporation; regional development banks; the European Development Fund; the UN Development Program; and specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture OrganizationFood and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1945. Its headquarters is in Rome, and it has a number of regional, subregional, and liaison offices around the world.
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.

Bibliography

R. F. Mikesell, The Economics of Foreign Aid (1983); W. W. Rostow, Eisenhower, Kennedy and Foreign Aid (1985); R. E. Wood, From Marshall Plan to Debt Crisis (1986); P. Mosely, Foreign Aid: Its Defense and Reform (1987); R. C. Riddell, Foreign Aid Reconsidered (1987); N. Eberstadt, Foreign Aid and American Purpose (1989); D. Germidis, Financial Systems and Development (1991); S. Payaslian, U.S. Foreign Economic and Military Aid: The Reagan and Bush Administrations (1996).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Ministry of Planning, Development and Reform is assigned to authorize release of PSDP funds (local component only) as per quarterly release strategy notified by Finance Division each year, whereas, foreign aid component is directly disbursed by the donors and reported by the EAD.
The antecedents of foreign aid as a panacea can be traced to development theories of the 1950s and '60s, which concluded that the plight of poor countries owes to lack of domestic savings, which in turn meant lower investment.
We should also consider acceptance of the selected cryptocurrencies by local economies, as the incoming foreign aid has purchasing power.
This paper underlines the use of foreign aid to promote successful HIV interventions in LAC, including routine surveillance, which is related to lower rates of HIV (Sgaier et al.
foreign aid for El Salvador in retaliation "after their leftist government decided to abandon Taiwan in favor of China.
The source said that the Ministry of Planning, Development and Reforms is in the process of formulating a strategy for investment and foreign aid for development projects.
The book is a rich addition both to the literature on foreign aid per se and to the ongoing debate on non-traditional aid.
Foreign aid can help make the world a safer and more prosperous place, and we should continue investing in it.
While presenting an academic research paper on the aid effectiveness and the quality of institutions managing foreign aid, Adamasu Maruta, a researcher at the University of South Australia, said foreign aid remains more relevant to the education, health and agriculture sectors compared to other sectors.
All countries give preference to their own national companies in awarding these contracts, and if Britain were to opt out of providing all foreign aid, several British companies would lose a significant proportion of their business.
Abrams Mbu Enow Tagem, of the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom, argued that foreign aid perpetuated donor-aid dependence.
Save the Children denied the allegations, but a Pakistani doctor who Islamabad charges acted as a spy for the CIA while conducting a vaccination campaign remains in jail.Pakistan Humanitarian Forum, which represents scores of foreign aid groups, says their work directly benefits about 29 million people in Pakistan.

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